Pest Management Essential Standard Compare distinguishing chrematistics of pest.
Presentation on theme: "Pests and Diseases 28.00: Examine distinguishing characteristics of pests so as to determine best management practices. 29.00: Compare methods of control."— Presentation transcript:
Pests and Diseases 28.00: Examine distinguishing characteristics of pests so as to determine best management practices. 29.00: Compare methods of control of horticulture plant pests.
What is an insect? Small animals that have three body regions and three pairs of legs equaling six legs Body regions –head –thorax –abdomen
Types of Insects The five types of mouthparts are important in identifying and controlling insects. –Chewing –Piercing –Rasping –Siphoning –Sponging
Aphids Pierce and suck juices known as plant lice cause stunted growth and yellow spotted leaves causes sticky substances and black mold will attract ants
Leaf Bugs Cause plants to look unhealthy plants will lose their normal color and wilt
Mealy Bugs Pierce and suck from underside of leaves and in leaf axils causing yellow appearance and sticky secretions
Scale Appear as black or brown raised lumps attached to stems and underside of leaves causing yellow leaves and stunted growth
Thrips Chew and then suck causing plant tissue to become speckled or whitened, leaf tip to wither, curl up, or die
Whiteflies Feed on underside of young leaves causing yellowing will look like flying little white specks when plants are shaken
Mites Attack underside of leaves causing gray to grayish-green spots severe infestations cause webbing
Diseases A disease is a plant disorder caused by an infectious pathogen or agent
Diseases There are 3 conditions necessary for diseases in plants –host plant –disease causing organism or pathogen must be present –favorable environment for disease organism to develop
Pathogens There are four groups of pathogens –bacteria –fungi –viruses –parasitic plants (attach to plants) mistletoe dodder lichens
Blight Causes plants to quickly turn brown or black as if they had been burned
Canker Causes open wounds on woody plants
Damping off A fungal disease that causes young plants and seedlings to rot off at soil level
Gall Swellings or growths on plants
Leaf Spots Rings of different shades of brown, green or yellow that make spots on leaves
Mildew Grows on leaf surfaces--both upper and lower--as white, gray or purple spots
Mosaic Caused by viruses that make the leaves have irregular mottled areas with patterns ranging from dark green to light green to yellow to white
Rots Cause plant to decay and die
Rust Causes small spots on leaves that resemble yellow, orange, brown or red rust mainly on the underneath side of leaves
Smut A black, powdery disease that causes blisters that burst open releasing black spores
Wilt A disease that blocks the uptake of water in plant stems causing plants to wilt
Controlling Pests and Diseases
Disease Control Preventing plant diseases is better than treating the diseases Plant diseases must be identified before they can be treated
Environment Warm temperatures and moist conditions in greenhouse plant production make most horticulture plant diseases worse because of environmental conditions that support disease- causing pathogens
Controlling Insects Insects can be controlled using the following methods: –biological –chemical –cultural –mechanical –natural –quarantine
Biological Control Uses natural enemies such as birds, other insects, etc.
Chemical Control The use of pesticides or insecticides Insects must be killed when they are actively feeding or moving on the plant
Chemical Control Contact poisons –affect the insects nervous system and must come into contact with the insect to be effective Fumigants –poisonous gases released into an enclosed place so that insects breathe the gases
Chemical Control Stomach poisons –sprayed on the plant surfaces or are taken into the plant through absorption. –The insect must suck the poison to get it into the stomach for this method to be effective. –Systemic poisons are more effective for controlling sucking insects.
Cultural Control Involves sanitation, removing insect breeding and hiding areas and using insect resistant plant varieties
Mechanical Control Uses physical control such as insect traps, using screens over fans and other openings, and washing plants with soapy water.
Natural Control Methods include natural barriers such as rivers, woods, mountains and predators to control insects.
Quarantine Physically isolates insects from healthy plants
IPM A combination of control methods is called Integrated Pest Management or integrated control.