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Pests and Diseases 28.00: Examine distinguishing characteristics of pests so as to determine best management practices. 29.00: Compare methods of control.

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Pest Management Essential Standard Compare distinguishing chrematistics of pest.

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Presentation on theme: "Pests and Diseases 28.00: Examine distinguishing characteristics of pests so as to determine best management practices. 29.00: Compare methods of control."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pests and Diseases 28.00: Examine distinguishing characteristics of pests so as to determine best management practices : Compare methods of control of horticulture plant pests.

2 What is an insect? Small animals that have three body regions and three pairs of legs equaling six legs Body regions –head –thorax –abdomen

3 Types of Insects The five types of mouthparts are important in identifying and controlling insects. –Chewing –Piercing –Rasping –Siphoning –Sponging

4 Chewing Insects Insects tear, chew or grind food Examples –grasshopper –beetle

5 Piercing Insects Punctures plant and sucks the sap

6 Rasping insect Rasps or breaks surface and sucks sap Example –thrips

7 Siphoning insects Have a coiled tube they dip into liquid food such as nectar and draw it in Example –butterfly

8 Sponging Insects Have two sponge-like structures that collect liquid food and move it into the food canal Example –housefly

9 Life Cycles Complete metamorphosis has four stages –egg –larva-worms or caterpillars –pupa –adult-flies, beetles, etc.

10 Life Cycles Incomplete metamorphosis has three stages –egg –nymph –adult

11 Life Cycles

12 Chewing Insects Parts of leaves are eaten away –beetles –cutworms –caterpillars –grasshoppers

13 Chewing Insects Beetles –eat leaves, stems, flowers, fruit and nuts Cutworms –usually attack stems, but may eat other plant parts

14 Chewing Insects Caterpillars –larva of moths and butterflies –fuzzy or hairy –eat young leaves and stems –roll up in leaves making leaves curl Grasshoppers –eat all parts of plants

15 Sucking Insects Aphids Leaf bugs Mealy bugs Scale Thrips Whiteflies

16 Aphids Pierce and suck juices known as plant lice cause stunted growth and yellow spotted leaves causes sticky substances and black mold will attract ants

17 Aphids

18 Leaf Bugs Cause plants to look unhealthy plants will lose their normal color and wilt

19 Leaf Bugs

20 Mealy Bugs Pierce and suck from underside of leaves and in leaf axils causing yellow appearance and sticky secretions

21 Mealy bugs

22 Scale Appear as black or brown raised lumps attached to stems and underside of leaves causing yellow leaves and stunted growth

23 Scale

24 Thrips Chew and then suck causing plant tissue to become speckled or whitened, leaf tip to wither, curl up, or die

25 Thrips

26 Whiteflies Feed on underside of young leaves causing yellowing will look like flying little white specks when plants are shaken

27 Whiteflies

28 Mites Attack underside of leaves causing gray to grayish-green spots severe infestations cause webbing

29 Mites

30 Plant Diseases

31 Diseases A disease is a plant disorder caused by an infectious pathogen or agent

32 Diseases There are 3 conditions necessary for diseases in plants –host plant –disease causing organism or pathogen must be present –favorable environment for disease organism to develop

33 Pathogens There are four groups of pathogens –bacteria –fungi –viruses –parasitic plants (attach to plants) mistletoe dodder lichens

34 Blight Causes plants to quickly turn brown or black as if they had been burned

35 Blight

36 Canker Causes open wounds on woody plants

37 Canker

38 Damping off A fungal disease that causes young plants and seedlings to rot off at soil level

39 Damping Off

40 Gall Swellings or growths on plants

41 Leaf Spots Rings of different shades of brown, green or yellow that make spots on leaves

42 Mildew Grows on leaf surfaces--both upper and lower--as white, gray or purple spots

43 Mosaic Caused by viruses that make the leaves have irregular mottled areas with patterns ranging from dark green to light green to yellow to white

44 Mosaic

45 Rots Cause plant to decay and die

46 Rust Causes small spots on leaves that resemble yellow, orange, brown or red rust mainly on the underneath side of leaves

47 Rust

48 Smut A black, powdery disease that causes blisters that burst open releasing black spores

49 Smut

50 Wilt A disease that blocks the uptake of water in plant stems causing plants to wilt

51 Wilt

52 Controlling Pests and Diseases

53 Disease Control Preventing plant diseases is better than treating the diseases Plant diseases must be identified before they can be treated

54 Environment Warm temperatures and moist conditions in greenhouse plant production make most horticulture plant diseases worse because of environmental conditions that support disease- causing pathogens

55 Controlling Insects Insects can be controlled using the following methods: –biological –chemical –cultural –mechanical –natural –quarantine

56 Biological Control Uses natural enemies such as birds, other insects, etc.

57 Chemical Control The use of pesticides or insecticides Insects must be killed when they are actively feeding or moving on the plant

58 Chemical Control Contact poisons –affect the insects nervous system and must come into contact with the insect to be effective Fumigants –poisonous gases released into an enclosed place so that insects breathe the gases

59 Chemical Control Stomach poisons –sprayed on the plant surfaces or are taken into the plant through absorption. –The insect must suck the poison to get it into the stomach for this method to be effective. –Systemic poisons are more effective for controlling sucking insects.

60 Cultural Control Involves sanitation, removing insect breeding and hiding areas and using insect resistant plant varieties

61 Mechanical Control Uses physical control such as insect traps, using screens over fans and other openings, and washing plants with soapy water.

62 Natural Control Methods include natural barriers such as rivers, woods, mountains and predators to control insects.

63 Quarantine Physically isolates insects from healthy plants

64 IPM A combination of control methods is called Integrated Pest Management or integrated control.

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