Presentation on theme: "Scott Walker and Nancy Shaw"— Presentation transcript:
1Current and Potential Utility of Broadleaf Herbs for Sagebrush Communities Scott Walker and Nancy ShawUtah Division of Wildlife Resources, Ephraim, UT andUSDA-FS Rocky Mountain Research Station, Boise, ID.
2(From Cronquist, A., et al 1972) The Great Basin(From Cronquist, A., et al 1972)
6Restoration Practicality Reduction of weedy competitionPreparation of suitable seedbedsRestoration of diverse communitiesPlanting site-adapted speciesRecovery of residual native species
7Increased Diversity of Plant Communities * Broader range of organisms.* Cover and soil stabilization.* Forage availability extended.* Improve esthetics.*Higher quality forage.* Supplies critical nutrients and succulence.*Fruits, seeds, and leaves of forbs are frequently a principal food for upland game birds
8Availability & Utility of Principal Native Species ShrubsGrassesForbs
9Status of Broadleaf Forbs for Restoration Large number of plant associationsModerate number of species presentFew species occupy broad range of sitesIndividual taxa consist of diverse ecotypes
10In the Management of Any Land Type It Is Important to Recognize All Sites Support a Particular Array of Species.All plant communities have evolved to support a particular group of compatible species.These species provide the most complete and effective group of plants for the particular landscape, climate, and exist over time.
11Native forbs offer unique challenges in seed collecting, handling and seeding Usually hand collectedWildland seed production can be highly erraticCost and availability are unpredictableSeed handling guidelines have not been developedSeeding requirements and cultural practices have not been developed
12Principal Broadleaf Forbs Recommended For Seeding Sage and Mt Principal Broadleaf Forbs Recommended For Seeding Sage and Mt. Brush Communities.Western YarrowLouisiana sagePacific asterBlueleaf asterCicer milkvetchArrowleaf balsomrootCrownvetchGeraniumUtah sweetvetchOne flower helianthellaCow ParsnipLigusticumLewis flaxLomatiumLupineAlfalfaYellow sweetclover SainfoinSweetanisePenstemonSmall burnetButterweed groundselCanada goldenrodGlobemallowCloverShowy goldeneye
13Most Commonly Seeded Forbs SpeciesPounds purchased in 2000*Alfalfa126,000Lewis flax87,000Small burnet65,000Cicer milkvetch30,500Western yarrow27,000Yellow Sweetclover16,550Sainfoin10,400*BLM Purchases in 2000
14Other Seed Purchased Palmer penstemon 900 Munroe globemallow 250 SpeciesPounds purchased in 2000*Palmer penstemon900Munroe globemallow250Gooseberry leaf globemallow200*BLM Purchases in 2000
15Forb species were listed as having potential for rangeland restoration. Of the 76 forbs species listed,63 were natives13 were introduced.
19Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Dry land types are hybrids between the rhizomatous M. falcata (yellow flower) and the deep rooted M. sativa (purple flower).Dry land types adapted to the great basin at >10” (persists best at 12 +) precipitation.Fruit: legumeGermination: Very little dormancy. Will germinate with fall moisture and is susceptible to winter kill.Seed as dormant seeding LATE fall or early spring.
20Small Burnet: (Sanguisorba minor) Very palatable semi-evergreen, nitrogen fixer, highly nutritious.Cultivar: Delar.Establishes well when seed drilled (at ¼ to ¾ in.), or aerial applied and covered.Establishes well at 12” precipitation does not withstand heavy grazing at dryer sites.
21Utah Sweetvetch: (Hedysarum boreal) Palatable legume, deep rooted, occurring in sagebrush, pinyon/juniper, and oakbrush types.Cultivar: Timp.Seed: Has a lomented pod that disarticulates at ripening.34,000 seeds per pound.Fall seed, some dormancy requiring 1 month stratification. Seed at ½ in., 2 lbs per acre.
22Cicer Milkvetch: (Astragalus cicer) Adapted to upper sagebrush, pinyon/juniper, and oakbrush (>14”).Good forage and seed producer. Bird and small mammals utilize the seed.Released varieties: Lutana, Monarch.Sainfoin: (Onobrychis viciafolia)Non-bloating legume, adapted to >12 inches precipitation.Highly palatable and nutritious, is preferred by deer, elk, and sage grouse. Seed: 18,000 seeds per lb. Seed at 2 to 5 lbs per acre in mix.Released varieties: Eski, Remont.
23Western Yarrow (Achillia millifolium) Cultivar: Variety from Eagle Id. Will be released soonWide distributionUsed by hens and chicks, harbors insects.Very small seed- 4 million per pound.Surface seed in the Fall, 0.25 to 1 lb per acre.Establishes readily.
24Pacific Aster: (Aster chilensis) Asters as a group are an important component to the native communities.Consist of a broad array of species.Small seeded 2.5 million seeds per pound.Requires 2-4 week stratificationBalsamroot:(Balsamoriza spp.)Wide spread in Intermountain area.Early spring green up, good wildlife forage.Large seeds, 55,000 per pound.Slow to establish, but very persistent.
25Showy Goldeneye: (Viguiera multifora, V. nevadensis.) V. multiflora- broadly adapted to many vegetative types. When purchasing seed be sure of the source. Ranges from Sage, p/j to sub alpine.V. nevadensis- occurs in drier sites in the Great Basin.Small seeded 1 million per pound. Does well on surface, can be drilled.Good seed producer with strong seedlings.Early spring green up.Readily sought out by wildlife as a herbaceous forage, and seed is utilized by birds.
26Hawksbeard: (Crepis spp. ) Fleabane: (Erigeron spp Hawksbeard: (Crepis spp.) Fleabane: (Erigeron spp.) Salsify: (Tragopogon spp.)Seed: Generally small seeded, but do establish well on disturbed sites.Little information on seed and seeding requirements.No current releasesThe importance of these species to sage grouse and other wildlife is becoming more understood.
27Forbs Broadleaf Forbs Family Genus Common name . Apiaceae Lomatium Desert parsleyLinaceae Linum FlaxMalvaceae Sphaeralcea GlobemallowPolygonaceae Eriogonum Desert BuckwheatScrophulariaceae Penstemon Penstemon
28Forb Releases Species Origin Release Class _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Eriogonum niveum SD Umatilla CultivarE. umbellatum CA Sierra CultivarLinum perenne SD Appar Cultivar (escaped?)Lomatium sppPenstemon eatonii UT Richfield SelectedP. palmeri UT Cedar CultivarP. strictus NM Bandera CultivarP. venustus ID Clearwater SelectedSphaeralcea coccinea ID ARS GermplasmS. munroana UT ARS Selected
29Seed Quality Testing Species Germination Rule Viability Test Eriogonum XLinum XL. perenne XLomatiumPenstemon X XP. eatonii XP. palmeri XP. strictus XP. venustus XSphaeralcea XS. coccineaS. munroana
30Family Linaceae Linum perenne var. ’Appar’ Perennial Blue Flax Widely adaptedProduced in seed fieldsEasily seededEstablishes in mixtures
31Linum lewisii Lewis flax, Wild blue flax Widely distributedConsiderable intraspecificvariationGreat Basincultivar being developed
36Family Apiaceae Lomatium spp. , Biscuitroot, Wild parsley 70 species, nearly allin Western U.S.Lower elevation sagebrush tosubalpineEarly spring growthPlants usually scattered
37Lomatium spp.: Seeds and Seeding Seed supply unreliableHand harvestedFruits flat, winged, easilycleaned and seededSeedlings vigorousNo cultivars, germinationtest or viability procedureL. triternatumNine-leaved biscuitroot
38Family Malvaceae Sphaeralcea spp., Globemallow 25 species in the West, most commonin the Southwest8-12 inch precipitation zoneEstablishes during wet years,persists in seedbankSeveral ploidy levels occurOne of the few forbs seeded insalt desert shrublandsS. munroanaMunro globemallowS. grossulariifoliaGooseberryleaf globemallow
39Sphaeralcea spp.: Seeds and Seeding Flowering indeterminateSeed collected by hand500,000 seeds per poundDrill seed or broadcast and coverSeeds require scarificationand prechillingGermplasm releases:ARS-2936 S. coccineaARS-2892 S. munroanaNo germination or viability testS. munroanaMunro globemallow
40Family Scrophulariaceae Penstemon spp., Penstemon P. speciosusP. deustusP. peckiiP. fruticosus
41Penstemon: Seed Harvested from native stands or seed fields Seed small (100,000 to 600,000 per pound)Seed easily cleaned and handledLongevity of seed in dry storage: 4 to 6 yearsField culture and seed production studied
42Penstemon: Seeding Fall seeding -prechilling often required Drill (shallow) or broadcastand coverCan be seeded with othersmall seeded forbs and shrubsMatures fairly rapidlyGermination rule and TZprocedures available.
43Penstemon: Releases Scientific Common Release Release name name Origin name type .P. eatonii Firecracker UT Richfield SelectedP. palmeri Palmer UT Cedar CultivarP. strictus Rocky Mt. NM Bandera CultivarP. venustus Alpine ID Clearwater Selected
44The Pre-variety Germplasm Release Program A “Fast Track” Alternative Release Procedure Certification type:Site-IdentifiedVerified for geographic origin. No comparisons made with other germplasms of the species.Selected ClassGermplasm compared on a common site with other germplasms.Tested ClassProgeny tested to ensure that observed traits are heritable and stable.Cultivar/VarietyTested material for which there is considerable market demand.
45Research Requirements Plant ecologyEcotypic variability and distributionPlant biologySeed characteristics, germination requirementsSeedbed ecology and establishmentField culture and seedproductionForb geneticsRevegetation genetics
46Candidate Species Identification and ranking of important species Field surveysDistributionWildlife habitat valuesSummary list