We are establishing a framework of decision making for instruction and intervention – meeting the needs of each student. We are using that framework, at this point, to focus on reading. We are grouping assets into a framework – taking advantage of what we have, adjusting as necessary, filling in gaps. We are slowly moving across grades collaboratively In time instruction will look different because teachers will have sufficient time to develop new instructional habits and build the system. West Virginia Department of Education3
Tiered Instruction and Special Education We find these truths to be self evident... Special education is a service not a place. Tier II and Tier III are not places. Neither Tier II nor Tier III is necessarily or invariably special education. Neither IDEA nor Policy 2419 stipulates a range of intellectual functioning for a student to be identified with a specific learning disability. West Virginia Department of Education 4
The structure of a school organized for tiered instruction and intervention accommodates Needs of non-IEP students who are not at benchmark all services on an IEP interventions from, e.g., a counselor supporting a student with a history of risky behavior instruction for a student learning English as a second language. documentation for referral and evaluation Tiered instruction and intervention is about meeting each student where he or she is instructionally or behaviorally – using all staff and all minutes in the school day West Virginia Department of Education5
An IEP is an individualized education program that ensures the amount of service needed to make progress. If we know what it takes for a student to make progress, our responsibility is to provide it. The question is not, Where in a tiered model does the special education student fit?. The question is, What does the instruction the student receives look like? The question is not, Where do I put the Tier on the IEP? The question is, How does the framework for instruction in the school accommodate the services required on the IEP? West Virginia Department of Education6
How do services on an IEP differ from those provided to a student who received Tier III interventions prior to entitlement? What is specially designed instruction? The biggest question is... West Virginia Department of Education7
Tier 1: Core Classroom Instruction for Reading FocusAll students ProgramCore reading program Grouping Multiple formats: whole group, small group, pairs Time90 minutes per day for RELA AssessmentBenchmark assessment three times/year (Sept, Jan, May) InterventionistGeneral education teacher with assistance from other educators SettingGeneral education classroom West Virginia Department of Education 8
What services could a student with an IEP typically receive in Tier I? West Virginia Department of Education9
Tier 2: Intervention FocusAt-risk students as determined by repeated benchmark assessments Program Explicit, systematic, SBRR, targeted essential components of reading GroupingHomogenous small group (1:3, 1:4 or 1:5) TimeTier 1 + 30 min/day (50 sessions) AssessmentProgress monitoring (2x/month) on target skills, diagnostic assessment InterventionistTitle 1 reading specialist, special educator, speech language pathologist, other qualified professionals SettingGenerally pull-out West Virginia Department of Education 10
How do you take advantage of the characteristics of Tier II to provide services to a student with an IEP? West Virginia Department of Education11
Tier 3: Intensive Intervention FocusStudents with marked difficulties who have not responded to Tiers 1 and 2 ProgramSustained, intensive scientific research-based reading instruction or other interventions GroupingSmall group (1:3) TimeTier 1 + additional 45-60 min/day – may be accomplished in segments to achieve total additional minutes AssessmentProgress monitoring (2x/month) and diagnostic assessments Interventionist Educator with specialized reading, or other relevant, skills that address individualized needs SettingGenerally pull-out – before school, after school, summer school – appropriate classroom environment West Virginia Department of Education12
Tier 3 may or may not be special education… West Virginia Department of Education13
How do you take advantage of the characteristics of Tier III to provide services to a student with an IEP? West Virginia Department of Education14
21 st Century Teaching and Learning: All WVBE Policies Evidence based instruction Individual student needs addressed through response to intervention Students with IEPs West Virginia Department of Education15
County Special Education Director? Be active in your county leadership role to explain that response to intervention is a framework that allows for systematic instruction, intervention and documentation of progress for all students – with a focus on elementary at this time. Collaborate in providing teachers and principals with information regarding the RTI process and framework Be clear about the components of the referral process that will be necessary for a referral to be pursued beginning July 1, 2009. Monitor minutes on a new IEP for a student recently receiving Tier III support Transition special education teachers to a role that includes accountability for the progress of each special education student for whom he/she is responsible. Continue to ask questions. Use available resources. West Virginia Department of Education16
A few answers At this time, a response to intervention process is not in place in PreK. Students exiting PreK 619 services will be evaluated with the current procedures. Students who transfer into WV with IEPs will be served as required by Policy 2419. The RTI framework allows for reconsideration of needs and entitlement to services through progress monitoring at all levels of service. A special education teacher can teach students who are not entitled to special education services, providing IEPs of students for whom he/she is responsible are met. Students with IEPs can be taught by a teacher other than a special education teacher. West Virginia Department of Education17
Frequently Asked Questions: RTI Meets Special Education
Its better to know some of the questions than all of the answers. James Thurber
Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 Blurring the lines of the tiers…
How can there be consistency from one Eligibility Committee to another? Student performance is influenced most by the quality of the interventions we deliver and how well we deliver them- not preconceived notions about child characteristics Decisions are best made with data Our expectations for student performance should be dependent on a students response to intervention, not on the basis of a score that predicts what they are capable of doing.
HOW DOES THE ELIGIBILITY COMMITTEE DETERMINE SUFFICIENT PROGRESS? Some Decision-making Examples
Decision Rules: What is a Good Response to Intervention? Positive Response –Gap is closing –Can extrapolate point at which target student will come in range of peers--even if this is long range Questionable Response –Rate at which gap is widening slows considerably, but gap is still widening –Gap stops widening but closure does not occur Poor Response –Gap continues to widen with no change in rate.
Decision Rules: Linking RTI to Intervention Decisions Positive, Questionable, Poor Response Intervention Decision Based on RTI (General Guidelines) Positive Continue intervention until student reaches benchmark (at least). Fade intervention to determine if student has acquired functional independence. Questionable Increase intensity of current intervention for a short period of time and assess impact. If rate improves, continue. If rate does not improve, return to problem solving. Poor Return to problem solving for new intervention
Ellen 2 nd grade student End of School Year General Education Scores at 62 wcpm in second grade material Teacher judges (based on in-class observation/evaluation) comprehension to not be substantially different from ORF – not great, not terrible
Decision Model at Tier 1- General Education Instruction Screening ORF = 62 wcpm, end of second grade benchmark for at risk is 70 wcpm (see bottom of box) Compared to other students, Ellens scores around the 12 th percentile + or - Ellens teacher reports that she struggles with multisyllabic words and that she makes many decoding errors when she reads Is this student at risk? NoYes Move to Tier 2: Strategic Interventions This Student is at Risk, General Education Not Working Ellen Continue Tier 1 Instruction
Decisions at Tier 2- Supplemental Instruction Supplemental, small group instruction will be provided to Ellen She will participate in two different supplemental groups, one focused on Decoding (Phonics for Reading) and one focused on fluency building (Read Naturally) She will participate in small group instruction 5x per week, 30 minutes each – and she will also continue with her core instruction Supplemental instruction implemented by certified teachers in her school (2 different teachers) Progress monitoring every 2 weeks
Tier 2- Supplemental Instruction - Revision The intervention appeared to be working. What the teachers thought was needed was increased time in supplemental instruction. They worked together and found a way to give Ellen 30 minutes of supplemental instruction, on phonics and fluency, 5x per week.
Data-Based Determination of Expectations: Ellen Benchmark Level:100 WCPM Current Level:56 WCPM Difference to June Benchmark (Gap):44 WCPM Time to Benchmark: 27 Weeks Rate of Growth Required: –44/27= 1.62 WCPM for Ellen Peer Group Rate = 1.1 WCPM growth (at benchmark) 1.2 WCMP (for some risk benchmark) REALISTIC?
By the Spring of 3 rd Grade Ellens reading accuracy had improved significantly. Her average % correct hovers around 95 percent. She still struggles with multisyllabic words Normatively, at periodic and annual review time, she is now performing at about the 19 th percentile compared to peers. She is catching up! Ellen is not a student with a disability
Decisions at Tier 1- General Education Instruction Screening ORF = on track for 100 wcpm, end of third grade benchmark for some risk is 110 wcpm (see top of box) Compared to other Heartland students, Elsie scores around the 19th percentile + or - Is this student at risk? Still a bit of risk, maintain Tier II instruction for another benchmark period, if progress continues, move to tier 1 NoYes Maintain Tier 2: Strategic Interventions Ellen Continue Monitoring or Move Back to Tier 1
Tier 3 Decisions Level of learning? Rate of progress?? Independent Functioning? –Fade Intervention to Supplemental Level –Evaluate Rate
Bart 2 nd grade student Beginning of school year General Education Scores at 20 wcpm in second grade material Teacher judges (based on in-class observation/evaluation) comprehension to not be substantially different from Oral Reading Fluency (ORF)
Decisions at Tier 3- Intensive Intervention & Instruction Is student responsive to intervention at Tier 3? ORF = 31 wcpm, winter benchmark (still 4 weeks away) for some risk = 52 wcpm Target rate of gain over Tier 2 assessment is 1.5 words/week Actual attained rate of gain was 0.95 words/week Below comprehension benchmarks in all areas Student NOT on target to attain benchmark NoYes Move to Sp Ed Eligibility Determination Bart Continue monitoring or return to Tier 2
If a parent requests an evaluation for sp ed, what assessments should be administered? Regardless of the evaluation request source, the evaluation team reviews existing data and determines what further information, if any, is needed Evaluation components focus on specific features of the students academic difficulty Team selects assessments that will help define the problem and inform instruction
Do RTI services go on the IEP? No – RTI is a general education framework that includes Tier 2 and Tier 3 supports as needed
How is the students specially designed instruction documented on the IEP? Present Levels of Academic Achievement and Functional Performance include multiple data sources to describe the students learning characteristics Services may look like Tier 3 intervention, but will be required for a longer period of time IEP team considers appropriate supplementary aids and services for accessing the general curriculum Related services may be needed
When are parents notified within the RTI process? ALL parents should be informed of the schools RTI model at the beginning of each school year – remember, this is a general ed initiative… When the instruction/intervention team suspects the student may have a disability, Refer to SAT Initiate the evaluation process Obtain parental consent Notify parents of procedural safeguards
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