6 Criticisms of previous LD model (IQ-Achievement Discrepancy) Children must fail before they can be identified as LD, with identification typically occurring in grades 3-5IQ and academic achievement are not independent; so difference scores are unreliableFor students with word reading deficits, there are few meaningful differences between IQ-achievement discrepant poor readers and IQ-achievement consistent poor readersSignificant increases in the number of students identified as Learning DisabledRon
7 School-Wide Systems for Student Success Academic SystemsBehavioral SystemsIntensive, Individual InterventionsIndividual StudentsAssessment-basedHigh IntensityIntensive, Individual InterventionsIndividual StudentsAssessment-basedIntense, durable procedures1-5%1-5%Targeted Group InterventionsSome students (at-risk)High efficiencyRapid response5-10%5-10%Targeted Group InterventionsSome students (at-risk)High efficiencyRapid responseRonSAY: One of the most important organizing components of PBS is the establishment of a continuum of behavior support that considers all students and emphasizes prevention. This logic of this 3-tiered approach is derived from the public health approach to disease prevention.All students and staff should be exposed formally and in an on-going manner to primary prevention interventions. Primary prevention is provided to all students and focuses on giving students the necessary pro-social skills that prevents the establishment and occurrence of problem behavior. If done systemically and comprehensively, a majority of students are likely to be affected.Some students will be unresponsive or unsupported by primary prevention, and more specialized interventions will be required. One form of assistance is called secondary prevention, and is characterized by instruction that is more specific and more engaging. These interventions can be standardized to be applied similarly and efficiently across a small number of students. The goal of secondary prevention is to reduce/prevent the likelihood of problem behavior occurrences, and to enable these students to be supported by the school-wide PBS effort.If primary prevention is in place, a small proportion of students will require highly individualized and intensive interventions. The goal or tertiary level interventions is to reduce the intensity, complexity, and impact of the problem behaviors displayed by these students by providing supports that are (a) function-based, (b) contextually appropriate and person-centered, (c) strength-based and instructionally oriented, (d) continuously evaluated and enhanced, and (e) linked to the school-wide PBS approach.Universal InterventionsAll studentsPreventive, proactiveUniversal InterventionsAll settings, all studentsPreventive, proactive80-90%80-90%
9 Whole Child Initiative = Whole System Initiative RTIRTI2Often viewed as a Special Education InitiativeLed by General Education to address the needs of all childrenImplicationsRonCoordinated effortLearning each other’s vocabularyCommitment to studying data for every childCommitment to responding to the data for every childWe are in this together for the good of every child.
10 Essential Components of RTI Universal screeningMultiple tiers of interventionProblem-solving methodIntegrated data collection/assessment systemScientific research-based interventionsRon
11 Essential Components of RTI2 Universal screeningMultiple tiers of interventionTier I: Core InstructionTier II: InterventionTier III: Intensive InterventionResponsibility for InterventionProblem-solving methodIntegrated data collection/assessment systemScientific research-based interventionsShannonStrengthen partnershipsJoint effort
12 Implementing RTICollect local norms using Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) probesIdentify at-risk studentsProvide academic intervention(s)Monitor student progressEvaluate the response to the intervention(s)Ron
13 Implementing RTI2Collect local norms using Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) probesAll students’ levels are identified.Provide academic extensions and intervention(s)Use universal screening data to determine areas to strengthen in Core Instruction.Monitor student progressEvaluate the response to the intervention(s)Develop a robust secondary RTI2 plan.Shannon
14 Knox County’s RTI Model Local norms collected three times per yearAt-Risk students identified using CBM Benchmark measuresComputer software programs and scripted reading program interventions availableIntervention intensity progressively increases through 2 tiers and student progress is monitored frequentlyResponse to intervention is reviewed by school staff to make appropriate decisionsRon’s slide
15 Knox County’s RTI2 Model Local norms collected three times per yearALL students’ levels identified using benchmark measuresCurrent and new interventions are under review against the TDOE interventions rubricIntervention intensity is fluid based on student needsRTI2 school teams meet every 4 ½ - 5 weeks to analyze and program for specific students.RTI2 district team meets every 4 ½- 5 weeks to analyze implementation and to provide support.Make this point- KCS is not responding to this as a mandate with which we must comply. Meeting the needs of every student is our mission, and RTI2 gives us a structure through which to achieve that goal.Shannon
16 First Steps Understand the current implementation of RTI. Analyze against RTI2.Identify gaps in the program.Develop a strategic plan for addressing the areas of need.Monitor the progress toward the goal.Work as a team.Michelle
17 Knox County’s RTI Model Student CBM ≥ 10th PercentilePositive response – exit processHIGHSpecial Education ConsiderationIntensity of InterventionTier II At least minute sessions/weekRonThis is KCS’s current model.How does this align with RTI2 model?1) Additional tier2) We need more fluidity among the tiers3)Identify students below the 10th percentile and between the 10th and 25th percentile.Tier I At least 4 – 30 minute sessions/weekStudent CBM < 10th PercentileANDROI < 25th PercentileMonitoring Frequency & Degree of UnresponsivenessLOWHIGH
18 Tier I CBM Criterion: CBM score < 10th percentile (district norms) Intervention: supplemental to the core curriculumProgress Monitoring: 1 time/weekSession Length: 30 minutes/sessionDuration: At least 8 WeeksFidelity: 30 sessions within 40 school daysRon
19 Tier II CBM Criterion: CBM score < 10th percentile (district norms) ROI Criterion: Rate of improvement is < 25th percentile at grade or goal levelIntervention: supplemental to the core curriculumProgress Monitoring: 1 time/weekSession Length: 45 minutes/sessionDuration: At least 9 weeksFidelity: 45 sessions within 70 school daysRon
20 Transition Process for KCS Identify new members of district teamEvaluate proposed middle school schedule changes against RTI2 componentsMeet with principals to gather inputRecommend interventionsSupport master schedulingPrincipals and supervisor review possible solutionsOrder intervention materialsTrain on interventionsMonitor fidelityContinually meet to review integrity of the planShannon
21 RTI2 Coaches 8 district coaches Bridge between the schools and the district committeeGoal is to support school staffUniversal screenerProgress monitoringProfessional DevelopmentMichelle
22 Intervention Elementary Secondary RiverDeep Destination Success ReadingRead NaturallyClickN ReadMy SidewalksTicket to ReadVoyager PassportRewardsReading PlusRead 180Language! LiveLanguage!JamestownMichelleEach of the interventions that we use have different areas of focus.Regardless of which tier the student is in, the intervention must match the student’s needs and should be provided by highly-trained staff. The interventions should be explicit and systematic. And be based on current data. All interventions should also be researched based and produce reliable and valid results.
23 Fidelity of Interventions In order to know if an intervention is effective with a student, the intervention must be conducted exactly as prescribed for an appropriate length of time.The intervention process is similar to standardized testing.Results of standardized tests are useless if the standardized procedures are not followed.Similarly, decisions regarding the effect of the intervention must be based on data from interventions which were provided with fidelity.MichelleFidelity of any intervention is essential when determining the effectiveness of the intervention. The person providing the intervention must use the curricula exactly the way the author intended for it to be used in order for the results to be used when making educational decisions for a student. LEAs must have a process for monitoring the fidelity of the interventions that are being utilized. This process needs to include who will be monitoring the fidelity and how often. The process should also include what support will be provided if an intervention is not being provided with fidelity.
25 The chart displays the student’s progress in corrects and errors. The goal line (the line which projects the goal being met by the end date) is the black line.The trend line (the line which shows the scores projecting whether the student will meet the goal by the end date) is the red line.
38 RTI to RTI2 What remains the same? What changes? Fidelity monitoring Progress monitoringStudent-specific data driven decision-makingSchool teamsCore Instruction = Tier IPrevent failure rather than wait for itReconsideration of secondary processStudent observationsSchedule of progress monitoring and benchmarkingFluid processPartnership among departmentsMichelle
39 Three Points to Remember Work as a team.Improve personalization in Tier I (core).Celebrate success along the way.
40 Thank you! If you have any questions, please feel free to contact: Dr. Ron Carlini atMichelle Flynn atShannon Jackson atMichelle
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