Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

W est Virginia Phonological Awareness Project West Virginia Department of Education Office of Special Programs Extended and Early Learning Adapted from.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "W est Virginia Phonological Awareness Project West Virginia Department of Education Office of Special Programs Extended and Early Learning Adapted from."— Presentation transcript:

1 W est Virginia Phonological Awareness Project West Virginia Department of Education Office of Special Programs Extended and Early Learning Adapted from information by C. Melanie Schuele, Ph.D. Vanderbilt University

2 What do you remember about learning to read? Most educators were very successful at learning to read. Most educators like to read. What does it mean that people who are good at reading are trying to teach reading to children who are not very good at learning to read and probably dont like reading very much?

3 Discussion Topics WVDE PROGRAM OVERVIEW/RATIONALE How did we get here? WHAT IS PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS? What is your phonological awareness? PROGRAM COMPONENTS How does this program relate to tiered instruction? PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION Classroom Component Intensive Phonemic Awareness Program (IPAP) Intervention SCHOOL IMPLEMENTATION School Team Roles Materials Assessment Monitoring

4 Why Worry About Reading? 20% of elementary students nationwide have significant problems learning to read. 80% of all referrals to special education involve reading difficulties (Kavale and Reese, 1992). The rate of reading failure for African-Americans, Hispanic, limited-English speakers and poor children ranges from 60% to 70%. 75% of children behind in reading in 3 rd grade remain behind through high school.

5 Poor readers are more likely to drop out of school. One-third of fourth graders who are poor readers come from college-educated families. 75% of children with oral language impairments are reading disabled in fourth grade. Children with language impairments are 6 times more likely to be reading disabled than peers. Effective prevention and early intervention programs can increase the reading skills of 85 to 90% of poor readers to average levels. (Lyon, 1997)

6 Why Focus on Phonemic Awareness? Longitudinal studies of reading acquisition have demonstrated that… the acquisition of phonemic awareness is highly predictive of reading success. At the kindergarten level, phonemic awareness abilities appear to be the best single predictor of successful reading acquisition. Without direct phonemic awareness instructional support…. 25% of middle-class first graders and substantially more children from less literacy–rich backgrounds will evidence serious difficulty in learning to read and write.

7 Why are we here? To improve childrens early reading achievement Poor phonemic awareness significant factor in the poor early reading achievement of many children. Through instruction…. childrens phonemic awareness skills can be improved. Improvement in phonemic awareness skills leads to greater reading achievement.

8 What are the Implications ? According to Research, Best Practice, Evidence- based Practice……………. All children should receive phonological awareness instruction as part of literacy instruction. In the early grades, especially kindergarten. Children who do NOT have an adequate foundation of phonological awareness… Require intensive phonemic awareness intervention (e.g., small group) at the end of kindergarten and/or beginning of first grade.

9 What Motivated the WVDE Phonological Awareness Project ? Student Achievement Data from Statewide Assessment Low literacy scores Legal Implications No Child Left Behind IDEA ASHA Changing Roles and Responsibilities of SLPs in literacy initiatives Initiated by WVDE in 2001

10 Project Goals To increase Number of students reading on grade level. Third Grade Professional educators knowledge base Importance of phonemic awareness in the reading program. To provide professional educators with Strategies Teach and promote student mastery of phonological awareness. Appropriate intervention strategies when student mastery has not been met. Program Expansion to additional school sites.

11 Project Collaboration Collaboration with university researchers. Dr. Melanie Schuele to plan the project to in-service the professional staff Evaluation: Dr. Laura Justice Collaboration across WVDE to fund and coordinate the project. Reading First Special Education Title I Collaboration with local county school districts to implement the project. Collaboration of the WVDE with local county school districts in order to implement the project. Office of Instructional Services: Title I Reading First Office of Special EducatioN

12 What was the rationale for program development ? By teaching specific phonemic awareness skills to kindergarten and first-grade children…. Provide them the opportunity to catch up to their peers before they experience failure. One-on-one training is highly effective but not cost efficient. Training must be effective and cost-efficient and time- efficient. Group instruction can be effective and efficient. Educational practice needs to reflect research- based practice.

13 Rationale… … Many materials are available for phonemic awareness training, but….. Little guidance as to how to effectively implement comprehensive, systematic, intensive training with children. Textbooks Phonemic awareness training must be…… Adequate in scope, intensity and duration. Materials and programs must…… Explain how to teach skills as well as describe activities. Intensive, early intervention can….. Prevent reading difficulties.

14 Who are the children we anticipated would benefit? All children benefit from instruction that reflects best practice. Children lacking early literacy experiences. Children needing an extra push. Children with speech/language disabilities. Children with learning disabilities.

15 WVDE Pilot Project How did we get here? Program Design Classroom Based Instruction Intensive Phonological Awareness Program Selection of School Sites Training/Materials Pre and Post Assessment Evaluation

16 Program Design Classroom- Based Phonological Awareness Instruction Instruction provided to all children in kindergarten and first grade classes. Incorporated into classroom daily activities. Teacher or collaboration w/ SLP or Title I Phonemic Awareness in Young Children: A Classroom Curriculum Data Collected ______________________________________________________ Intensive Phonological Awareness Training Program (IPAP) Small Group Instruction: (6 students) Fall: First Grade Spring: Kindergarten Three 30 min sessions/week for 12 weeks Letter names/sounds reviewed each session Weeks 1-3: Rhyme Training Weeks 4-8: Initial Phoneme Segmentation Weeks 7-9: Final Phoneme Segmentation Weeks 10-12: Word Segmentation and Blending Data Collection

17 WVDE Pilot Project Selection of School Sites Schools: 15 Sites Selected Funding Application Process Criteria Administrative Support School Commitment Geographic Considerations Representative Cross Section of Schools School Teams Classroom Component: Kindergarten/First Grade Teachers Intensive Intervention: Speech-language pathologist Title I teacher Special Educato r

18 Training School Teams trained by Dr. Schuele. Intensive – 5 days Two strands of instruction/intervention. (1) Classroom based instruction: Kindergarten/First Grade Material: Phonemic Awareness in Young Children: A Classroom Curriculum ________________________________________________ (2) Small group intervention Low-achieving first graders Low-achieving kindergartners Material: Intensive Phonemic Awareness Program (IPAP) Book IPAP Materials Box box Evaluate child outcomes. Kindergarten classrooms Small group intervention participants

19 Training Materials Classroom Program Phonemic Awareness in Young Children: A Classroom Curriculum Brookes Publishing Company Activity Implementation Record Kindergarten and First Grade Resource Speech to Print: Language Essentials for Teachers Brookes Publishing Company Intensive Program Intensive Phonological Awareness Program (IPAP) Manual Dr. Melanie Schuele IPAP Implementation Record Forms IPAP Materials Box All materials to implement IPAP Resource Sounds Abound: Listening, Rhyming, and Reading LinguiSystems

20 Assessment: Pre and Post Intervention Test of Phonological Awareness (TOPA) PALS ( Phonological Awareness Screening) Invented Spelling Task Alphabet Knowledge and Letter-Sound Knowledge Task DIBELS (Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills)

21 Evaluation Questions What improvement in phonological awareness do kindergarten children exhibit as a result of consistent classroom based instruction? _________________________________________ For kindergarten and 1 st grade students who are identified as deficient in phonological awareness, what improvement in phonological awareness is realized as a result of a small group, 12-week intensive intervention program? ________________________________________ Dr. Laura Justice – University of Virginia

22 PALS-K Word Recognition

23 Children Below Benchmark End of Year Add-OnRegular Rhyme 26%41% Beginning Sounds 9%20% Alphabet Knowledge 26%30% Letter Sounds 61%66% Spelling 4%16% Concept of Word 44%57%

24 Developmental Spelling First Grade Change Over 12 Weeks/first grade

25 Alphabet Knowledge Kindergarten Change Across 12 Weeks

26 What were the school teams perceptions of the project?


28 Phonological Awareness Training Objectives Increase knowledge …. in order to provide effective phonemic awareness instruction. Analyze the sound structure of language …. in order to understand the importance and skills necessary to analyze sounds. Develop effective teaching strategies …. in order to provide effective phonemic awareness instruction.

29 What do we know about children who display difficulties in learning to read from the outset? Poor word recognition skills with underlying deficits in phonemic awareness.

30 models of READING DEVELOPMENT Challs (1983) Six Stages of Reading Stage 0: Preceding (0-5 yrs.) Stage 1: Initial Reading or Decoding (5-7 yrs.) Stage 2: Ungluing from Print (7-9 yrs.) Stage 3: Reading to Learn (9-14 yrs.) Stage 4: Multiple Viewpoints (14-18 yrs.) Stage 5: Construction and Reconstruction (above 18 yrs.)

31 READING word identification sight word recognition word attack skills comprehension word level comprehension sentence level comprehension text level comprehension


33 Phonological Awareness An awareness of the sound structure of spoken language An aspect of metalinguistic ability or metalinguistic awareness. Think about language as an object of thought, ……….separate from language meaning. Not important for communicative uses of language. Crucial for literacy acquisition

34 Phonological Awareness The ability to analyze the the sound units (phonemes, syllables) of language. metalinguistic skill NOT hear, NOT discriminate Phonemic awareness critical to early reading ability.

35 Phonological Awareness Phonemic Awareness Phonemic Awareness Phonological Awareness

36 Phonemic awareness ??????? Phonological awareness ??????? Phonological awareness – a broader term; analyze the overall sound structure of words. What rhymes with cat? Which word is longer – watermelon or house? Phonemic awareness – a more narrow term, analyze the specific sounds in words. What sound does box start with? Tell me the three sounds in the word cat. Terms are often used synonymously.

37 Phonological Processing Predicts Reading Achievement Phonological memory repeat nonsense words of increasing length Rapid automatized naming names of common objects, colors Phonological or phonemic awareness

38 Why is the acquisition of phonological awareness a challenge for so many children?

39 ROW A: Letters fish ROW B: Sounds /f//i//sh/ Row C: Pronunciation And Meaning Lewkowicz, 1980

40 What can a child do with phonological awareness? phonemic awareness? Color the picture that rhymes with cat. Tell me a word that rhymes with moon. Do cat and cow begin with the same sound? Circle the pictures that begin with the kuh sound. Tell me a word that begins with mmm. What word does /k/ – /ae/ – /t/ make? Put the sounds together. What are the three sounds in the word phone? Pig Latin – alktay igpay atinlay

41 Letter-Sound Correspondences Alphabet Knowledge Letter names Letter Sounds Alphabetic principle…… Words can be divided into sounds…….phonemic awareness Sounds can be linked to letters………..Alphabet Knowledge 26 letters, 44 sounds, 245 letter patterns _______________________________________________ What can a child do with phonemic awareness and the alphabetic principle? Write the letter for the beginning sound in box. Write the letter for the ending sound in house. Read this word: fish. Sound it out.

42 Phonological Phonics Awareness Focus: sound structure of words Intervention tasks involve identifying, segmenting, and manipulating the sounds in words, without reference to the letters that represent the sounds Achievement: ability to segment a spoken word into its component sounds (a metalinguistic skill); ability to combine sounds into words Focus: print representation of sounds and words Intervention tasks involve identifying, categorizing the print symbols (i.e., letters) that are used to represent speech sounds Achievement: ability to represent a spoken word in print with conventional sound-symbol correspondences; ability to create a spoken production of a written word by sounding out the written word


44 LINKING: Phonemic Awareness and Phonics and Reading Phonemic Awareness Phonics READING Phonological Awareness

45 What Phonemic Awareness Instruction Will and Wont Do? DO……. Benefit students who dont figure it out on their own Benefit especially students who are having problems learning to decode words WONT DO….. Ameliorate deficits in vocabulary and reading comprehension (language comprehension)

46 Syllable segmentation Rhyme Alliteration, Sound Sorts Onset-rime segment/blend Segment/blend Individual Phonemes Manipulate phonemes COMPLEXITY LESS MORE

47 Phonological Awareness Tasks Lewkowicz (1980) sound-to-word matching word-to-word matching recognition of rhyme isolation of beginning, medial or final sound phonemic segmentation counting phonemes blending deletion of a phoneme specification of phoneme deleted phoneme substitution

48 AGE Analysis: SKILL or ABILITY preschool segmentation of words into syllables, sentences into monosyllabic words some rhyming ability some beginning sound ability early kindergarten judge rhyming words generate rhyming words middle kindergarten match words with same beginning sounds match words with same final sounds segment initial sounds and final sounds late kindergarten segment sounds in two and three sound words (e.g., CV, VC, CVC) early first grade segment sounds in words with blends (e.g., skate, jump) DEVELOPMENT: Benchmarks

49 Instructional Sequence Instructional Tasks Segmenting sentences into words (monosyllabic words) Segmenting words into syllables RHYME rhyme judgment rhyme judgment rhyme matching rhyme matching rhyme generation rhyme generation INITIAL SOUNDS initial sound judgment initial sound judgment initial sound matching initial sound matching initial sound segmentation initial sound segmentation FINAL SOUNDS final sound judgment final sound judgment final sound matching final sound matching final sound segmentation final sound segmentation SOUND SEGMENTATION AND BLENDING CV and VC words CV and VC words CVC words CVC words CCVC and CVCC words CCVC and CVCC words

50 The Big Question…….. What effort is necessary for the child to acquire a foundation of phonological awareness that enables him or her to benefit from formal classroom reading instruction?

51 The Answer……. Nothing … the child comes to school reading the child comes to school on the cusp of reading. Whatever weve been doing for the last umpteen years. Explicit phonological awareness instruction classroom-based instruction in kindergarten small group intensive instruction at the end of kindergarten or beginning of first grade.

52 Development of Phonological Awareness Variability in children's phonological awareness skills at kindergarten entry. Children gradually develop phonological awareness, as early as preschool and continuing throughout the school years. Early phonological awareness from experiences. Instruction is crucial to development of phonological awareness for many children. Children need a foundation of phonological awareness to succeed at word decoding (phonics ).

53 Report: National Reading Panel (2000) Evidence-based Practice Phonemic Awareness PA can be taught and learned. PA instruction helps children learn to read. PA instruction helps children learn to spell. PA instruction is most effective when it focuses on one or two types of phoneme manipulation rather than several types. PA instruction is most effective when children are taught to manipulate phonemes by using alphabet letters.

54 What are the essential components of phonological awareness instruction? Achieve phonemic awareness: the ability to segment words into sounds. Incorporate letters/sounds to transition to reading and writing instruction. Provide a foundation on which to build more complex skills. Speech before print. Developmentally appropriate. Consistent with principles of speech structure. Phonological awareness plays a causal role in reading development crucial skill: PHONEMIC AWARENESS: segmenting and blending

55 What have we learned from phonological awareness interventions? o Earlier is better – provide instruction before reading failure is experienced oPhonological awareness develops as a result of appropriate instruction, not maturation. oChildren respond differently to instruction. oPhonemic awareness is a precursor to reading achievement.

56 Phonological Awareness Ability and Reading Achievement Torgesen and Mathes, 2000


58 Why are we doing this ? No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Individual child is focused Scientifically-based research reading instruction Individual with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Prevention Pre-referral Response to Intervention (RTI) Tiered Instruction Implementation in Elementary Schools Reading scientists now estimate that 95% of all children can be taught to read at a level constrained only by their reasoning and listening comprehension abilities. (Moats, 2000)

59 Learning Disabilities Some children, despite their participation in a preventative phonemic awareness instructional intervention, fail to acquire word reading skill within the normal range. Estimates 2% to 6% of population Intervention for Learning Disabled students: Provide more extensive instruction individually or in small group settings. Recognize that gains in reading will require more instruction and more reading time than most children. Tier 3 Instruction


61 Teacher of Phonological Awareness What do you need to know about the sound structure of language? What do you need to know about how speech is represented with print?

62 Words and Speech Sounds Words are made up of phonemes. Children must be able to figure out what sounds are in a word in order to decode words and spell words. Teachers must assist children in analyzing the sounds in words BEFORE they ask children to think about how print represents speech.

63 Instructional Goal Children segment words into sounds. Say the word, break the word into its individual sounds. NOT differentiate between vowel sounds classify vowels as long or short match vowel sounds, and so on…..

64 Take a test! Tell me the number of sounds in these words 1. cat 2. cake 3. fish 4. you 5. truck 6. stamp 7. the 8. fuse 9. ring 10.catch 12. exact 13. coupon

65 Tell me the number of sounds in these words: ANSWERS 1. cat cake fish you truck stamp the fuse ring catch – box exact coupon – it depends`

66 Categorizing Speech Sounds Place - lips, teeth, tongue, hard palate (roof of mouth) or soft palate (back of mouth) Manner – stop, nasal, fricative, affricate, glide, liquid Voiced or voiceless – vibration of vocal cords

67 With a partner, discuss where these sounds are made: /b/ /k/ /d/ /f/ /g/ /h/ /j / /l/ /m/ /n/ /p/ /r/ /s/ /t/ /v/ /w/ /y/ /z/ /ch/ /sh/ /th/

68 Phonetic Symbols Lips /teeth Tongue Between Teeth Tongue Behind Teeth Roof of Mouth Back of Mouth Throat Stop e p, bt, dk, g nasal mnng fricative f,vth, ths, zsh, zh affricate ch, j glide wyh liquid l r

69 Why do I have so much trouble doing this? If I cant do this, how can a child? _____________________________ Your performance is influenced by your knowledge of print. You have lost some of your ability to analyze speech.

70 Vowel Chart BACK FRONT HIGH LOW see sitsit make petpet catcat time foxfox cupcup sawsaw tube boat putput

71 How does speech map to print ? 26 Roman letters, more than 40 phonemes or speech sounds Grapheme: Single letter or combination of letters We use 250 graphemes to represent 40 phonemes!!

72 Moral of the Story Children need lots of practice learning to analyze the sound structure of words before they are asked to figure out how the sounds of words are represented in print.

73 WVDE Phonological Awareness Collaborative Project Program Components Classroom-based Instruction Kindergarten/First Grade Delivered by: Teacher May Collaborate with SLP or Title I _______________________________________ Intensive Intervention (Small Group) Fall: First Grade Spring: Kindergarten Delivered by: Interventionist SLP, Title I Reading Specialist, Special Education Assessment: Dibels

74 Tier 1: Classroom-Based Phonological Awareness Instruction Kindergarten and First Grade Best practice: Build a foundation of phonological awareness in all children Identify those children who struggle and need further intervention Daily instruction provided to all children regardless of performance level or risk status Minutes/day Material: Phonemic Awareness In Young Children: A Classroom Curriculum Suggested Sequence of Instruction Cost-effective

75 Phonemic Awareness in Young Children: A Classroom Curriculum Sequence of Activities and Teaching Descriptions Simple to Complex Tasks Listening Games Rhyming Words and Sentences Awareness of Syllables Initial and Final Sounds Phonemes Introducing Letters and Spellings Adams, M., Foorman, B., Lundberg, I., & Beeler, T. (1997). Phonemic awareness in young children: A classroom curriculum. Baltimore: Brookes.

76 Tier 2 Intervention Small Group Intensive Intervention Children who have not mastered phonemic awareness as a result of classroom instruction. DIBELS Small group instruction (6 students) Fall: First Grade Spring: Kindergarten Teach a foundation of phonological awareness to include phonemic awareness and segmentation Materials: Intensive Phonological Awareness Manual Instructional Materials Kit

77 Intensive Phonological Awareness Program (IPAP ) Time Frame: min. sessions per week 18 hours of instruction Letter names/sounds reviewed each session Weeks 1-3: Rhyme Weeks 4-6: Initial Sounds Weeks 7-9: Final Sounds Weeks 10-12: Word Segmentation and Blending Schuele, C. M., & Dayton, N. (2000). Intensive phonological awareness program. Nashville, TN:

78 School Team Roles Kindergarten Teacher: Implement daily instruction with entire kindergarten class. SLP, Title I Reading Teacher and/or Special Education Teacher: Provide 12 week IPAP 6 first graders (Fall) and 6 kindergartners (Spring) collaborate with the kindergarten teacher in classroom-based instruction. First Grade Teacher: Reinforce phonemic awareness skills with entire class. Assessment Coordinator: Coordinate all assessment with kindergarten and first grade children. Contact Person: Coordinate program and share information from the WVDE.

79 WVDE Project: Two Tiered Instruction in Kindergarten September to May: Implement classroom supplemental curriculum September: Evaluate all K children in classroom January: Evaluate all K children in classroom. Identify 6 low achievers February to May: Implement small group intervention with low achievers May: Evaluate all K children in classroom SeptemberMay.

80 WVDE Project: Two-Tiered Instruction in First Grade September to October: Implement classroom supplemental curriculum August/September: Evaluate all first grade children in classroom. Identify 6 low achievers September to December: Implement small group intervention with low achievers December: Evaluate low achievers August, September and October.

81 Children Need …. Initially to realize that words are composed of sounds. Initially to experience simple tasks of paying attention to sounds in words (e.g., rhyme). To move gradually from simple to more complex phonological awareness tasks, culminating in phonemic awareness tasks. Phonemic awareness to benefit from later decoding or phonics instruction. T0 BECOME SUCCESSFUL READERS!!

82 Technical Assistance Document INTRODUCTION Project Overview Record Keeping Teacher Documentation Student Selection Monitoring School Contact Ordering Information for Program Materials Timeline

83 Program Implementation Implementation of Phonemic Awareness in Young Children: Classroom Curriculum Kindergarten Classroom (p.8) Activity Implementation Record (p.11) First Grade Implementation (p.23) Activity Implementation Record (p. 24) Implementation of Intensive Phonemic Awareness Program (IPAP) (p.27) IPAP Record Form

84 TEAM DECISIONS Who will collaborate with the kindergarten teacher on the classroom instruction? Who will implement the 12 week intervention program with the group of 6 first grade children? Who will implement the 12 week intervention program with the group of 6 kindergarten children?

85 Resource Information WVDE Power Point Presentation(p.35) Notes Page/Website Informational Materials Research/Background Parent Notification Letter (p.37) Monitoring Documentation Form (p.38) Title I/Reading First/Special Ed Jean Pearcy School Contact Information Liaison w/ WVDE

86 Assessment Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) DIBELS Analysis: Kindergarten(p.41) DIBELS Analysis: First Grade (p. 42) Assessment Guide for IPAP (p.43) Paper/Pencil Booklets (p. 45) References (p. 49)

87 QUOTABLE QUOTES FROM IPAP Wiley Ford Elementary, Mineral County This was my first experience with the IPAP. I was very impressed. The student enjoyed it and made great progress for the exercises in the program. Jamie Hill Special Ed IPAP Teacher Fort Gay Elementary, Wayne County Teachers and parents have come to me and said they have seen major improvement with these kids. Crystal Young. IPAP instructor Point Pleasant Primary, Mason County We really believe that the emphasis on Phonemic Awareness in kindergarten and early first grade is making a difference in the reading success of our students. Lois Jones, Title I,PA Instructor

88 MORE QUOTES Ceredo Elementary, Cabell County They all have shown great improvement. Im so proud of them! Christine Kelly, M. Ed, CCC – SLP Rosedale Elementary, Fayette County No funding for DIBELS in the first grade, so we are only doing kindergarten. Ted Dixon, Principal Vienna Elementary, Wood County We have very much enjoyed the IPAP program and can see how beneficial the program has been for our children. I am anxious to see if we get the same progress as we prepare to start the program with kindergarten. Lana Barlett, IPAP instructor, first year

89 THE BOTTOM LINE Bonham Elementary, Kanawha County Patsy Serles, third year IPAP teacher At first I was not sure about this program because of the repetition. But after three years and seeing the turnaround of struggling students who could master phonemic awareness, she said, IM A BELIEVER! This program really works!

90 WEST VIRGINIA KINDERGARTEN IPAP DIBELS SCORES January ResultsISFPSFNWFTotal Benchmark24%20%22% Strategic56%36%35%42% Deficit20%46%44%36% May ResultsPSFNWFTotal Benchmark73%45%54% Strategic26%29%27% Deficit12%26%19%

91 WEST VIRGINIA FIRST GRADE IPAP DIBELS SCORES September ResultsPSFNWFTotal Benchmark32%19%26% Strategic50%45%48% Deficit18%36%27% January ResultsPSFNWFTotal Benchmark76%32%54% Strategic21%50%36% Deficit3%18%10%

92 Contact Information Kathy Knighton, Program Coordinator Phyllis Veith, Assistant Director Office of Special Programs Extended and Early Learning West Virginia Department of Education (304) or Fax (304)

Download ppt "W est Virginia Phonological Awareness Project West Virginia Department of Education Office of Special Programs Extended and Early Learning Adapted from."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google