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West Virginia Phonological Awareness Project

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1 West Virginia Phonological Awareness Project
West Virginia Department of Education Office of Special Programs Extended and Early Learning Adapted from information by C. Melanie Schuele, Ph.D. Vanderbilt University This presentation was developed by the West Virginia Department of Education using information developed by Dr. Melanie Schuele and the WVDE. The WVDE Phonological Awareness Program was initially implemented in 2001 and has now expanded to over 200 school sites. The program will be expanded to all elementary schools by fall 2010.

2 What do you remember about learning to read?
Most educators were very successful at learning to read. Most educators like to read. What does it mean that people who are good at reading are trying to teach reading to children who are not very good at learning to read and probably don’t like reading very much? Give them one minute to talk to their partner about what their learning to read experiences were. Then make this comment…. If we were successful at learning to read, we may not have any idea of the real frustrations for children who are having difficulty learning to read. This is not to say that we can’t help them. Rather, it is to remind us who it is that we are working with. And what a challenge it is to help children who are having difficulty learning to read.

3 Discussion Topics WVDE PROGRAM OVERVIEW/RATIONALE How did we get here?
WHAT IS PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS? What is your phonological awareness? PROGRAM COMPONENTS How does this program relate to tiered instruction? PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION Classroom Component Intensive Phonemic Awareness Program (IPAP) Intervention SCHOOL IMPLEMENTATION School Team Roles Materials Assessment Monitoring These are the major areas we will be addressing during the training today.

4 Why Worry About Reading?
20% of elementary students nationwide have significant problems learning to read. 80% of all referrals to special education involve reading difficulties (Kavale and Reese, 1992). The rate of reading failure for African-Americans, Hispanic, limited-English speakers and poor children ranges from 60% to 70%. 75% of children behind in reading in 3rd grade remain behind through high school. Share information on slide.

5 Poor readers are more likely to drop out of school.
One-third of fourth graders who are poor readers come from college-educated families. 75% of children with oral language impairments are reading disabled in fourth grade. Children with language impairments are 6 times more likely to be reading disabled than peers. Effective prevention and early intervention programs can increase the reading skills of 85 to 90% of poor readers to average levels. (Lyon, 1997) Here are some facts to make us think … [read these statements]

6 Why Focus on Phonemic Awareness?
Longitudinal studies of reading acquisition have demonstrated that… the acquisition of phonemic awareness is highly predictive of reading success. At the kindergarten level, phonemic awareness abilities appear to be the best single predictor of successful reading acquisition. Without direct phonemic awareness instructional support…. 25% of middle-class first graders and substantially more children from less literacy–rich backgrounds will evidence serious difficulty in learning to read and write. Why did we focus on phonemic awareness when developing this project?

7 Why are we here? To improve children’s early reading achievement
Poor phonemic awareness significant factor in the poor early reading achievement of many children. Through instruction…. children’s phonemic awareness skills can be improved. Improvement in phonemic awareness skills leads to greater reading achievement. We know that phonemic awareness plays a critical role in learning to read. The purpose of this training is to improve the reading achievement of students by focusing on the acquisition of phonemic awareness skills.

8 What are the Implications?
According to Research, Best Practice, Evidence- based Practice……………. All children should receive phonological awareness instruction as part of literacy instruction. In the early grades, especially kindergarten. Children who do NOT have an adequate foundation of phonological awareness… Require intensive phonemic awareness intervention (e.g., small group) at the end of kindergarten and/or beginning of first grade.

9 What Motivated the WVDE Phonological Awareness Project?
Student Achievement Data from Statewide Assessment Low literacy scores Legal Implications No Child Left Behind IDEA ASHA Changing Roles and Responsibilities of SLPs in literacy initiatives Initiated by WVDE in 2001 The WVDE was motivated by data indicating that WV needed to address reading scores. NCLB ‘s focus on literacy and accountability. IDEA (Individual with Disabilities Education Act) includes language that directs states to actively implement early intervention strategies for students PRIOR to referral for special education in an effort to PREVENT reading problems. ASHA (American Speech-language Hearing Association) recognized the expertise of the SLP in language and encouraged SLPs to become more involved in early literacy initiatives. WVDE staff involved in reading initiatives and speech/language pathology met to discuss possible intervention strategies using SLPs, reading specialists, Title I and/or personnel, etc.

10 Project Goals To increase To provide professional educators with
Number of students reading on grade level. Third Grade Professional educators’ knowledge base Importance of phonemic awareness in the reading program. To provide professional educators with Strategies Teach and promote student mastery of phonological awareness. Appropriate intervention strategies when student mastery has not been met. Program Expansion to additional school sites. It was important to develop a program that was cost-efficient and easily replicated in other school sites.

11 Project Collaboration
Collaboration with university researchers. Dr. Melanie Schuele to plan the project to in-service the professional staff Evaluation: Dr. Laura Justice Collaboration across WVDE to fund and coordinate the project. Reading First Special Education Title I Collaboration with local county school districts to implement the project. Collaboration of the WVDE with local county school districts in order to implement the project. Office of Instructional Services: Office of Special EducatioN Dr. Melanie Schuele is a speech-language pathologist who has spent her career researching phonological awareness and reading. – Vanderbilt University Dr. Justice – a nationally known expert in early literacy – University of Virginia.

12 What was the rationale for program development?
By teaching specific phonemic awareness skills to kindergarten and first-grade children…. Provide them the opportunity to “catch up” to their peers before they experience failure. One-on-one training is highly effective but not cost efficient. Training must be effective and cost-efficient and time- efficient. Group instruction can be effective and efficient. Educational practice needs to reflect research- based practice. Research based rationale

13 Rationale…… Many materials are available for phonemic awareness training, but….. Little guidance as to how to effectively implement comprehensive, systematic, intensive training with children. Textbooks Phonemic awareness training must be…… Adequate in scope, intensity and duration. Materials and programs must…… Explain “how to teach” skills as well as describe activities. Intensive, early intervention can….. Prevent reading difficulties. Textbooks at the time the project was initiated did not adequately address phonological awareness and there was a need for supplemental materials – However, currently adopted textbooks are much improved with regard to PA. We encourage teachers to maintain fidelity of the WVDE Phonological Program by continuing to implement the classroom component on a daily basis.

14 Who are the children we anticipated would benefit?
All children benefit from instruction that reflects best practice. Children lacking early literacy experiences. Children needing an extra push. Children with speech/language disabilities. Children with learning disabilities. All children will benefit from phonological awareness instruction in kindergarten. Indeed, current research clearly supports that phonological awareness instruction should be a visible, critical part of the kindergarten early literacy curriculum.

15 WVDE Pilot Project How did we get here?
Program Design Classroom Based Instruction Intensive Phonological Awareness Program Selection of School Sites Training/Materials Pre and Post Assessment Evaluation The next few slides will offer a brief background on the initial development and implementation of the project.

16 Program Design Classroom- Based Phonological Awareness Instruction
Instruction provided to all children in kindergarten and first grade classes. Incorporated into classroom daily activities. Teacher or collaboration w/ SLP or Title I Phonemic Awareness in Young Children: A Classroom Curriculum Data Collected ______________________________________________________ Intensive Phonological Awareness Training Program (IPAP) Small Group Instruction: (6 students) Fall: First Grade Spring: Kindergarten Three 30 min sessions/week for 12 weeks Letter names/sounds reviewed each session Weeks 1-3: Rhyme Training Weeks 4-8: Initial Phoneme Segmentation Weeks 7-9: Final Phoneme Segmentation Weeks 10-12: Word Segmentation and Blending Data Collection Based on the research we have just discussed – the WVDE in collaboration with Dr. Schuele designed this program specifically for West Virginia.

17 WVDE Pilot Project Selection of School Sites
Schools: 15 Sites Selected Funding Application Process Criteria Administrative Support School Commitment Geographic Considerations Representative Cross Section of Schools School Teams Classroom Component: Kindergarten/First Grade Teachers Intensive Intervention: Speech-language pathologist Title I teacher Special Educator Funding was the basis for the selection of the 15 sites. There was a limited amount of funding available – so we estimated total training/materials cost and determined that we could support 15 sites. Developed and disseminated an application. Selected sites based on the criteria listed.

18 Training School Teams trained by Dr. Schuele.
Intensive – 5 days Two strands of instruction/intervention. (1) Classroom based instruction: Kindergarten/First Grade Material: Phonemic Awareness in Young Children: A Classroom Curriculum ________________________________________________ (2) Small group intervention Low-achieving first graders Low-achieving kindergartners Material: Intensive Phonemic Awareness Program (IPAP) Book IPAP Materials Box box Evaluate child outcomes. Kindergarten classrooms Small group intervention participants Dr. Schuele provided the initial training. We have now reduced the training from 5 days to 1 day for program implementation and 1 day for Dibels. Evaluation was a critical part of the program design – did not want to waste time replicating if the data did not support this intervention.

19 Training Materials Intensive Program Classroom Program Resource
Intensive Phonological Awareness Program (IPAP) Manual Dr. Melanie Schuele IPAP Implementation Record Forms IPAP Materials Box All materials to implement IPAP Resource Sounds Abound: Listening, Rhyming, and Reading LinguiSystems Classroom Program Phonemic Awareness in Young Children: A Classroom Curriculum Brookes Publishing Company Activity Implementation Record Kindergarten and First Grade Resource Speech to Print: Language Essentials for Teachers Materials needed to Implement Program Resource materials are suggested: Speech to Print is an excellent resource for teachers to provide background in language and phonology by Louisa Moats. Sounds Abound: Pictures in this resource were used to develop IPAP Materials Box

20 Assessment: Pre and Post Intervention
Test of Phonological Awareness (TOPA) PALS ( Phonological Awareness Screening) Invented Spelling Task Alphabet Knowledge and Letter-Sound Knowledge Task DIBELS (Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills) Initially used TOPA and PALS – now use DIBELS

21 Evaluation Questions What improvement in phonological awareness do kindergarten children exhibit as a result of consistent classroom based instruction? _________________________________________ For kindergarten and 1st grade students who are identified as deficient in phonological awareness, what improvement in phonological awareness is realized as a result of a small group, 12-week intensive intervention program? ________________________________________ Dr. Laura Justice – University of Virginia

22 PALS-K Word Recognition
Statistically significant

23 Children Below Benchmark End of Year
Add-On Regular Rhyme 26% 41% Beginning Sounds 9% 20% Alphabet Knowledge 30% Letter Sounds 61% 66% Spelling 4% 16% Concept of Word 44% 57%

24 Developmental Spelling First Grade Change Over 12 Weeks/first grade
Statistically significant. Across 12 weeks, on a developmental spelling assessment, IPA groups’ mean score changed 10 points and comparison children’s mean changed less than 9 points

25 Alphabet Knowledge Kindergarten Change Across 12 Weeks
Both group means in May approached mastery on the measure of naming letters. However, the change across the 12 weeks was far greater for the IPA group. Statistically significant.

26 What were the school teams’ perceptions of the project?


28 Phonological Awareness Training Objectives
Increase knowledge …. in order to provide effective phonemic awareness instruction. Analyze the sound structure of language …. in order to understand the importance and skills necessary to analyze sounds. Develop effective teaching strategies …. in order to provide effective phonemic awareness instruction. These are the goals we have for each of you during the training: Increase your knowledge about the relationship of phonemic awareness and reading achievement. This knowledge will help you understand the WHYs – why you are learning new information, why you will provide the specialized phonemic awareness instruction to children, and so on. Increase your ability to analyze the sound structure of language. This sounds a little bit odd. If you are going to teach something to children that is necessary for them to learn to read, it seems that you should already be able to do this. Afterall, you know how to read. But in fact, many literate adults have difficulty analyzing language at the level of speech sounds. You might have trouble doing this because you think about PRINT more than you think about SPEECH. But I assure you, by the end of training - you will be much better at analyzing the sound structure of language! Develop effective teaching strategies so that you are able to effectively teach children to analyze the sounds in words. So that you are able to promote the development of phonemic awareness skills in young children. A word of CAUTION – we all come to this training with different levels of knowledge, with different types of expertise. For the most part, teachers are experts in print. And speech-language pathologists are experts in speech. We are going to begin to make teachers experts in SPEECH, or the act of analyzing speech. That is, we are going to increase everyone’s phonemic awareness. This can be a frustrating process for everyone. Also, recognize that each member of your team comes to this training with a different set of knowledge and you will leave with varying levels of understanding. One goal is that you work collaboratively and help each other out. As we go through some of the content today things may make a lot more sense to the SLP on the team than it does to everyone else. Don’t worry about that –we expect that to happen. Our goal is that each of you increase in your understanding of phonemic awareness, not that you all have identical skills at the end of this training.

29 What do we know about children who display difficulties in learning to read from the outset?
Two decades of research have clearly illustrated that children who fail at the initial stages of reading have poor phonemic awareness skills. Okay, we’ve used the terms phonemic awareness and phonological awareness a lot already this morning. Now, let’s get clarity on exactly what these words really mean. Poor word recognition skills with underlying deficits in phonemic awareness.

Chall’s (1983) Six Stages of Reading Stage 0: Preceding (0-5 yrs.) Stage 1: Initial Reading or Decoding (5-7 yrs.) Stage 2: Ungluing from Print (7-9 yrs.) Stage 3: Reading to Learn (9-14 yrs.) Stage 4: Multiple Viewpoints (14-18 yrs.) Stage 5: Construction and Reconstruction (above 18 yrs.) This project is looking to effect the achievement of children in Stage 1 of reading development, when they are beginning to figure out how print works. We are looking at providing instruction that will make children more successful at decoding words. We want to help children BEFORE they fail at learning to read. Thus, this is a pro-active project.

31 READING word identification comprehension sight word recognition
word attack skills comprehension word level comprehension sentence level comprehension text level comprehension Clearly reading consists of many things. At a simple level, we can think of reading as figuring out words and understanding the meaning of the words. The instruction that we are going to implement likely will influence children's abilities to identify words. It won’t directly influence children's reading comprehension. But many children have great difficulties identifying words. We want to minimize these difficulties. And identifying words is a critical step in the early stages of learning to read.

WHAT IS PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS? WHAT IS PHONEMIC AWARENESS? WHAT IS PHONICS? Before we continue our discussion of the program – it is important that we understand the difference between phonological awareness, phonemic awareness and phonics.

33 Phonological Awareness
An awareness of the sound structure of spoken language An aspect of metalinguistic ability or metalinguistic awareness. Think about language as an object of thought, ……….separate from language meaning. Not important for communicative uses of language. Crucial for literacy acquisition Let’s start with the term “phonological awareness” – this term broadly means “the ability to reflect on and manipulate the sound structure of a word.” Phonological awareness is an analysis skill – you analyze the sound structure of the words. You can analyze this at many levels. Importantly, you are not going to think about the meaning of the word when you analyze the sound structure of words. This is a challenge for young children – because they are skilled at the meaning of words. They aren’t skilled at analyzing sounds. What I want to emphasize here is that phonological awareness is a metalinguistic skill. It calls upon a child's ability to analyze the sound structure of language. This analysis ability is quite different than producing phonemes correctly in a word. So just because I can say BOX, does not mean I can analyze the sounds in BOX. Phonological awareness tasks do not require children to “hear” differences between sounds, rather phonological awareness tasks require children to analyze the sounds in words. Importantly, these abilities to analyze the sound structure of words in our language is crucial to development of reading skills. But it is not important for using words to communicate effectively. Societies that do not have print, may never have a need to develop the ability to analyze the sound structure of words.

34 Phonological Awareness
The ability to analyze the the sound units (phonemes, syllables) of language. metalinguistic skill NOT hear, NOT discriminate Phonemic awareness critical to early reading ability. An awareness of the sound structure of spoken language an aspect of metalinguistic ability or metalinguistic awareness: think about language as an object of thought, separate from language meaning not important for communicative uses of language crucial for literacy acquisition

35 Phonological Awareness Phonemic Awareness
The critical achievement is taking the whole word apart into individual sounds or phonemes. It is not just “slow” talk…but definite separation… Also critical is the blending of phonemes… Phonemic Awareness

36 Phonemic awareness ??????? Phonological awareness ???????
Phonological awareness – a broader term; analyze the overall sound structure of words. What rhymes with cat? Which word is longer – watermelon or house? Phonemic awareness – a more narrow term, analyze the specific sounds in words. What sound does box start with? Tell me the three sounds in the word cat. Terms are often used synonymously. . What is the difference between these two words? The words actually have different meanings. In the research literature, phonological awareness is the broader term. It actually an umbrella term for all tasks that require analysis of the sounds of language. Phonemic awareness is one type of phonological awareness skill. Phonemic awareness is the term we would use to refer to tasks that require us to specifically segment out the sounds in words. Rhyming words would be a phonological awareness task but not a phonemic awareness task. But telling me the sounds in the word BOX as /b/ /a/ /k/ /s/ is a phonological awareness task AND a phonemic awareness task. It is a phonemic awareness task because you have to specifically analyze the sounds in the word. In rhymes you generally pay attention to the overall sound structure of the word. The challenge is that in the educational practice literature, the terms get used interchangeably. Look at the title of the book for the kindergarten curriculum we have – PHONEMIC awareness in young children. Now flip to the table of contents and see that the curriculum includes lots of phonological awareness tasks that are not phonemic awareness tasks – for example, the whole chapter on rhymes! You decide how you want to use the terms. What is more important that how you use the terms is that you recognize that when we talk about tasks that require children to analyze the sound structure of words, we have tasks of many different levels of complexity. Because a child is good or skilled on one type of task, does not necessarily mean they will be successful on more complex tasks.

37 Phonological Processing Predicts Reading Achievement
Phonological memory repeat nonsense words of increasing length Rapid automatized naming names of common objects, colors Phonological or phonemic awareness To digress for just a moment .. many of you may have encountered the word “phonological processing”. Phonological processing is an umbrella term for three skills or behaviors that correlate with reading achievement. Phonemic awareness is one type of phonological processing skill. You might come across these terms when you are reading articles about phonemic awareness. Typically, speech professionals deal with the first two tasks. Most students even in kindergarten, can do these easily. Phonological memory – repeat: “brist – teep - spim” Rapid automatized naming – flash colors on screen – name them quickly

38 Why is the acquisition of phonological awareness a challenge for so many children?

39 ROW B: Sounds /f/ /i/ /sh/
ROW A: Letters f i sh ROW B: Sounds /f/ /i/ /sh/ Row C: Pronunciation And Meaning Row A … Row C .. Child’s tendency to react to spoken word as a meaning, without paying conscious attention to the sounds at all. Sounds overlap, give examples also of stop word – bat Individual sounds (phonemes) are not psychologically real. Breaks in words – no Breaks in syllables – yes Syllables are the natural break – they have psychological reality. Equate to hearing a foreign language spoken… Sounds are influenced by the letters (sounds) around them. KAY KEY Not really the same placement/sound with /k/ in these words…The position of the tongue shifts in anticipation of the vowels. Lewkowicz, 1980

40 What can a child do with phonological awareness? phonemic awareness?
Color the picture that rhymes with cat. Tell me a word that rhymes with moon. Do cat and cow begin with the same sound? Circle the pictures that begin with the “kuh” sound. Tell me a word that begins with mmm. What word does /k/ – /ae/ – /t/ make? Put the sounds together. What are the three sounds in the word phone? Pig Latin – alktay igpay atinlay

41 Letter-Sound Correspondences
Alphabet Knowledge Letter names Letter Sounds Alphabetic principle…… Words can be divided into sounds…….phonemic awareness Sounds can be linked to letters………..Alphabet Knowledge 26 letters, 44 sounds, 245 letter patterns _______________________________________________ What can a child do with phonemic awareness and the alphabetic principle? Write the letter for the beginning sound in box. Write the letter for the ending sound in house. Read this word: fish. Sound it out. How many different spellings can you think of for the sound /sh/? shell nation special ocean sure chef Schmidt

42 Phonological Phonics Awareness
Focus: sound structure of words Intervention tasks involve identifying, segmenting, and manipulating the sounds in words, without reference to the letters that represent the sounds Achievement: ability to segment a spoken word into its component sounds (a metalinguistic skill); ability to combine sounds into words Focus: print representation of sounds and words Intervention tasks involve identifying, categorizing the print symbols (i.e., letters) that are used to represent speech sounds Achievement: ability to represent a spoken word in print with conventional sound-symbol correspondences; ability to create a spoken production of a written word by “sounding out” the written word Memory can get “in the way” with some kids – it may seem like they have knowledge, when all they have done is to memorize a limited amount of information. Letter of the week – M - /m/ - What words: mail, monkey moon (memorized from series) Which of your cousins has a name that starts with /m/ (asks for application of knowledge) – “Jennifer? Adam?” “No, it’s Melissa.” “No, not her!”

43 New names for old concepts?
PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS = AUDITORY DISCRIMINATION? NO PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS = PHONICS? Phonological awareness is not the same as auditory discrimination. Auditory discrimination relates to one’s ability to tell you that two words are different, there is no analysis involved. If children had trouble discriminating words then they would never have learned to talk.

44 LINKING: Phonemic Awareness and Phonics and Reading
Phonological Awareness

45 What Phonemic Awareness Instruction Will and Won’t Do?
Benefit students who don’t figure it out on their own Benefit especially students who are having problems learning to decode words WON’T DO….. Ameliorate deficits in vocabulary and reading comprehension (language comprehension) But if you can read, then you have a one more means to learn language comprehension and vocabulary. Otherwise, you are limited to spoken language, which is not very diverse in vocabulary and sentence structure (esp. complex syntax). However, if you can decode easily, you can learn more vocabulary and comprehension.

46 COMPLEXITY MORE LESS Manipulate phonemes Segment/blend Individual
Onset-rime segment/blend Alliteration, Sound Sorts LESS Continuum of Complexity from Less complex activities to more complex activities Developing phonological awareness is characterized by a progressively more refined awareness of shorter and more abstract segments of speech. Segmenting/blending are the foundation for phonological awareness and necessary for reading and writing. Rhyme Syllable segmentation

47 Phonological Awareness Tasks Lewkowicz (1980)
sound-to-word matching word-to-word matching recognition of rhyme isolation of beginning, medial or final sound phonemic segmentation counting phonemes blending deletion of a phoneme specification of phoneme deleted phoneme substitution Direct them to the handout at the end of this section – page 6 – Have them read this on their own. Those skills which are most critical for kindergarten and first grade are bolded and italicized.

48 DEVELOPMENT: Benchmarks
AGE Analysis: SKILL or ABILITY preschool segmentation of words into syllables, sentences into monosyllabic words some rhyming ability some beginning sound ability early kindergarten judge rhyming words generate rhyming words middle kindergarten match words with same beginning sounds match words with same final sounds segment initial sounds and final sounds late kindergarten segment sounds in two and three sound words (e.g., CV, VC, CVC) early first grade segment sounds in words with blends (e.g., skate, jump) This slide gives you a guideline of the skills we expect children to have learned by different ages or early grades. CSOs use these… Page 4 from the same handout referenced in the last screen. Is it OK for a first grade student NOT to be able to read by December??? No…then it is critical for him/her to reach these benchmarks throughout their kindergarten and first grade “career”.

49 Instructional Sequence
Instructional Tasks Segmenting sentences into words (monosyllabic words) Segmenting words into syllables RHYME rhyme judgment rhyme matching rhyme generation INITIAL SOUNDS initial sound judgment initial sound matching initial sound segmentation FINAL SOUNDS final sound judgment final sound matching final sound segmentation SOUND SEGMENTATION AND BLENDING CV and VC words CVC words CCVC and CVCC words The Intensive PA program mirrors this sequence

50 The Big Question…….. What effort is necessary for the child to acquire a foundation of phonological awareness that enables him or her to benefit from formal classroom reading instruction? So now that we know something about phonological awareness, and that children need phonological awareness skills to be successful at early reading instruction – We want to ask this question. We want to know what we need to do to get ALL children to have that foundation of phonological awareness, specifically phonemic awareness. What kind of instruction. How much instruction.

51 The Answer……. Nothing … the child comes to school reading
the child comes to school on the cusp of reading. Whatever we’ve been doing for the last umpteen years. Explicit phonological awareness instruction classroom-based instruction in kindergarten small group intensive instruction at the end of kindergarten or beginning of first grade. For some children, we don’t have to do anything. They come to kindergarten with all the skills that they need. Their preschool and home learning experiences helped them to develop a foundation of phonological awareness. Most of these kids seem to be “wired” for reading. Phonological Awareness and Reading seem to come to these kids quite easily and quite readily. For other children, the curricula we have followed for years has been adequate. For other children, they need explicit instruction in phonological awareness instruction. Some will develop an adequate foundation if we provide phonological awareness learning activities in the regular kindergarten curriculum each day, through the kindergarten school year. For some children, even the classroom instruction won’t be enough. Reading researchers have estimated that about 20% of children will not get enough skill from classroom instruction. Rather, those children will need intensive small group instruction to learn a foundation of phonological awareness skills. And even then, some children will continue to struggle.

52 Development of Phonological Awareness
Variability in children's phonological awareness skills at kindergarten entry. Children gradually develop phonological awareness, as early as preschool and continuing throughout the school years. Early phonological awareness from experiences. Instruction is crucial to development of phonological awareness for many children. Children need a foundation of phonological awareness to succeed at word decoding (phonics). Next question for us, how do children acquire phonological awareness or phonemic awareness? Will they get it on their own? Or will they need instruction? Go through this slide and emphasize the variability in children in entry to kindergarten. Some kids are already quite good at analyzing the sounds of words but there are other children that have NO ability to analyze the sound structure of words. They aren’t successful at even the simplest level of figuring out rhyming words. An important point – children who don’t have phonological awareness skills will get phonological awareness as a result of good instruction that helps them learn to analyze the sounds in words. Why do children need phonological awareness? Most simply, because to learn word decoding skills you first have to understand that words are comprised of individual sounds. To spell words, to sound out words – you have to understand how words can be divided into sounds, before you can think about how those sounds might be represented with letters.

53 Report: National Reading Panel (2000) Evidence-based Practice Phonemic Awareness
PA can be taught and learned. PA instruction helps children learn to read. PA instruction helps children learn to spell. PA instruction is most effective when it focuses on one or two types of phoneme manipulation rather than several types. PA instruction is most effective when children are taught to manipulate phonemes by using alphabet letters. National Reading Panel addressed this issue in their critical report published in 2000 – and was the foundation of many reading initiatives.

54 What are the essential components of phonological awareness instruction?
Achieve phonemic awareness: the ability to segment words into sounds. Incorporate letters/sounds to transition to reading and writing instruction. Provide a foundation on which to build more complex skills. Speech before print. Developmentally appropriate. Consistent with principles of speech structure. Phonological awareness plays a causal role in reading development crucial skill: PHONEMIC AWARENESS: segmenting and blending Our instruction needs to continue until children develop skill at the level of phonemic awareness, the ability to completely divide a word into its sounds. We can’t limit our instruction to rhyming words and being able to segment the initial sounds in words. Many kindergarten curricula stop at this point. We need to move all the way to dividing words into all the sounds. We need to show children how sounds relate to letters, and this will provide a transition to formal reading instruction. We need to start with easier skills that are the stepping stones to more complex skills. We need to show how SOUNDS relate to LETTERS. This means we need to start by having children analyze words into sounds. Give them lots of practice. Once they are good at this, then we need to show them how we can use letters to represent sounds. Instruction that starts with letters is bound to fail – if you don’t understand that words can be broken up into sounds, then there is not much point in trying to figure out what letters will be used for what sounds. We need instruction that is meets the needs of kindergarten and first grade children. We need to know about how speech sounds work. We need teachers and SLPs that understand how words can be divided into speech sounds if we hope to teach this skill to children.

55 What have we learned from phonological awareness interventions?
Earlier is better – provide instruction before reading failure is experienced Phonological awareness develops as a result of appropriate instruction, not maturation. Children respond differently to instruction. Phonemic awareness is a precursor to reading achievement. The big point to emphasize here is that we want to provide intervention before reading failure. Once children fail at reading, they are unlikely to catch up. We don’t want to wait and see if they will figure this out on their own. We want to provide instruction that will enable them to figure this out. Don’t send home “immature” students – they need to hear language – receive PA instruction….what is their home like? Are they apt to get this instruction there?

56 Phonological Awareness Ability and Reading Achievement Torgesen and Mathes, 2000
Review slide.

57 Phonological Awareness Ability and Reading Achievement Torgesen and Mathes, 2000
Solid line = the top 80% of the group… Dotted line = the bottom 20% of the group.

58 Why are we doing this? No Child Left Behind (NCLB)
Individual child is focused Scientifically-based research reading instruction Individual with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Prevention Pre-referral Response to Intervention (RTI) Tiered Instruction Implementation in Elementary Schools Reading scientists now estimate that 95% of all children can be taught to read at a level constrained only by their reasoning and listening comprehension abilities. (Moats, 2000) IDEA = Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Have them raise their hands: Who’s speech? Who’s Sp. Ed? You CAN work with students w/o IEPs because it is a prevention program. You have an obligation to prevent referrals. Emphasis at the Federal level is now to reduce referrals. You do not need to get parental permission, however, it is nice to get parental support.

59 Learning Disabilities
Some children, despite their participation in a preventative phonemic awareness instructional intervention, fail to acquire word reading skill within the “normal” range. Estimates 2% to 6% of population Intervention for Learning Disabled students: Provide more extensive instruction individually or in small group settings. Recognize that gains in reading will require more instruction and more reading time than most children. Tier 3 Instruction These 2-6% are the truly learning disabled. WV Has implemented RESPONSE TO INTERVENTION project – all schools will implement by 2009 – this program is considered Tier 2 intervention .


61 Teacher of Phonological Awareness
What do you need to know about the sound structure of language? What do you need to know about how speech is represented with print? Okay … now we need to walk you through a few activities to think about speech sounds.

62 Words and Speech Sounds
Words are made up of phonemes. Children must be able to figure out what sounds are in a word in order to decode words and spell words. Teachers must assist children in analyzing the sounds in words BEFORE they ask children to think about how print represents speech.

63 Instructional Goal Children segment words into sounds. NOT
Say the word, break the word into its individual sounds. NOT differentiate between vowel sounds classify vowels as long or short match vowel sounds, and so on….. We want children to learn to break up words into sounds. This means they break the words into parts, into sounds. To do this, the child needs to analyze the sounds of words. They don’t need to differentiate between vowels, or classify vowels as long or short, or even match vowels sounds. They just need to break the word into sounds.

64 Take a test! Tell me the number of sounds in these words
1. cat 2. cake 3. fish 4. you 5. truck 6. stamp 7. the 8. fuse 9. ring 10.catch 12. exact 13. coupon This is a phonemic awareness task. Read each of these words. Figure out what the sounds are in each word. Write down the number of sounds in each word. You need to use your phonemic awareness skills. That is, you’ll need to analyze the sounds in the word. This task may be very easy for some of you, especially the SLP on your team. She thinks about sounds in words all the time. But for others, this task may be a challenge. Don’t get discouraged. Just give it a try. Do you own work. Don’t look for help from your neighbor. As we tell children, “if you don’t know the answer, I want you to give me your best answer.” [[give them a few minutes to do this. I think in terms of awareness, this is an important activity. Remind them to do this on their own]]

65 Tell me the number of sounds in these words: ANSWERS
8. fuse -- 4 9. ring -- 3 10. catch – 3 11. box -- 4 12. exact -- 6 13. coupon – it depends` 1. cat -- 3 2. cake -- 3 3. fish -- 3 4. you -- 2 5. truck -- 3 6. stamp -- 5 7. the -- 2 [Set this slide so that when it comes up it will be blank. Then you can “drop in” each word, one at a time, by pressing the “page down” or “spacebar”. This slide IS NOT in the in their handout. You will want to go through each word one at a time, talking about the number of sounds and the actual sounds. I would ask the audience for their answer first, because on some of the words you will get different answers. Then put the word on the screen with the answer, then go through the sounds in the word.]]]/For each word ….How many sounds are in ? [then “drop in” the word] What are the sounds in this word? [[Talk about why some people might be confused]] Some things you might want to point out with each word --- cat – everyone should get it./cake – everyone should get it, but someone might say 4 if they are paying attention to letters. fish – most will say three, some might say four. Talk about only three sounds, but in English, the one sound // is represented with two letters./you – might be some problems with this – /j/ /u/ should be the two sounds.(I include this word to set them up for use and fuse)/truck -- /t/ /r/ // /k/ -- everyone should get this. But then use this word to illustrate a mistake that kids consistently make. /Say: Often children say that truck has three sounds. Say truck slowly. If you were a child, what are the three sounds truck seem to have? Again, say the word slowly. What sounds? [see if anyone can give the answer] Yep, you’re right /t/ // /k/ stamp – no one should have trouble with this. But point out that children often find words with blends hard to figure out the sounds. The blends are hard to pull apart into individual sounds./the – two sounds. most should get this. Note again, that TH is used in English to represent one speech sound./use – many will say 2 sounds. go back to you. If you has two sounds, then what about use? And what about fuse? If use had two sounds, then the word would be pronounced as /uz/. /fuse – 4 -- actually has a consonant blend at the beginning, though we no longer spell out this blend in the orthography. /fj/ is the blend at the beginning. Can you think of any other words that have this blend at the beginning (few, fume, fumigate, fuel) Say each of these /fj/ words for them without the blend, so the words would be /fu/ /fum/ /fumI get/ /ful/ ring – some might say four. NG, another example of two letters, one sound./monkey… an example where letters and sounds don’t match up … N is letter use to represent // /catch .. answer should be three, but some may say 4. again, multiple letters for one sound. box – many folks will say 3. They’ll fail to recognize that X is two sounds/ks/. Remind them to pay attention to SOUNDS and not what letters. But point out that adults are so used to letters that we have to retrain ourselves to think closely about SOUNDS. Kids don’t know anything about letters, so they’ll analyze from the point of sounds./exact – just stuck this in here as another one to confuse them. and in this word the X represents the sound /gz/ because of the two vowels. Say the word for them with X as /ks/ and then X as /gz/ coupon – this word will depend on how it is said. if /kjupan/ then 6, if /kupan/ then 5. Here’s another example of those /j/ blends – cute, coupon, cue, cuneiform.

66 Categorizing Speech Sounds
Place - lips, teeth, tongue, hard palate (roof of mouth) or soft palate (back of mouth) Manner – stop, nasal, fricative, affricate, glide, liquid Voiced or voiceless – vibration of vocal cords Speech sounds are grouped according to three characteristics… place… where in the mouth the sound is made What structures in the mouth are used to make the sound? For example, /b/ is made with the lips. manner … what happens to the air as the sound is made? Back to /b/… the air is stopped with the lips. voicing – do the vocal folds in the larynx vibrate … /b/. Put your hands on your throat. Feel the vibration? Yes. Now say /p/ No vibration. Each person take the chart and try to fill in the sounds SLPs – don’t give your team the answers. Help them figure out the answers. SLPs should be able to do this task with no problems. They took a class for a whole semester in college on this topic. The rest of you should be in “discovery mode” Give them about 5 minutes to do this. Then go to the next slide and review

67 With a partner, discuss where these sounds are made:
/b/ /k/ /d/ /f/ /g/ /h/ /j/ /l/ /m/ /n/ /p/ /r/ /s/ /t/ /v/ /w/ /y/ /z/ /ch/ /sh/ /th/

68 Phonetic Symbols p, b t, d k, g m n ng f,v th, th s, z sh, zh ch, j w
Lips /teeth Tongue Between Teeth Tongue Behind Roof of Mouth Back of Mouth Throat Stop e p, b t, d k, g nasal m n ng fricative f,v th, th s, z sh, zh affricate ch, j glide w y h liquid l r Walk through the different consonants. Refer them to the handout in their notebook – Table 2.1 from Speech to Print book.

69 Why do I have so much trouble doing this
Why do I have so much trouble doing this? If I can’t do this, how can a child? _____________________________ Your performance is influenced by your knowledge of print. You have “lost” some of your ability to analyze speech.

70 Vowel Chart see sit tube put make pet boat cat saw time cup fox
BACK FRONT HIGH see sit tube put make pet boat cat Okay… let’s practice saying all the vowels. Let’s start with the vowels sound that is made in the front of our mouth, the highest vowel. We’ll move lower and then back. Notice how the position of our tongue changes. Say the vowels, not the whole word – start with see and end with tube, but remember just the vowels. Try it without separating the sounds…slide the vowels from one to the next. Do this twice. Notice how a slight change in the position of your tongue will result in a different vowel being produced. saw time cup fox LOW

71 How does speech map to print?
26 Roman letters, more than 40 phonemes or speech sounds Grapheme: Single letter or combination of letters We use 250 graphemes to represent 40 phonemes!! So, we have about 40 speech sounds in English but only 26 letters. If we look at how letters and combinations of letters are used to represent speech sounds, then we see that there are 250 letters or combinations of letters that are used to represent 40 sounds. WOW!

72 Moral of the Story Children need lots of practice learning to analyze the sound structure of words before they are asked to figure out how the sounds of words are represented in print. read this

73 WVDE Phonological Awareness Collaborative Project
Program Components Classroom-based Instruction Kindergarten/First Grade Delivered by: Teacher May Collaborate with SLP or Title I _______________________________________ Intensive Intervention (Small Group) Fall: First Grade Spring: Kindergarten Delivered by: Interventionist SLP, Title I Reading Specialist, Special Education Assessment: Dibels

74 Tier 1: Classroom-Based Phonological Awareness Instruction Kindergarten and First Grade
Best practice: Build a foundation of phonological awareness in all children Identify those children who struggle and need further intervention Daily instruction provided to all children regardless of performance level or risk status 15-20 Minutes/day Material: Phonemic Awareness In Young Children: A Classroom Curriculum Suggested Sequence of Instruction Cost-effective

75 Phonemic Awareness in Young Children: A Classroom Curriculum
Sequence of Activities and Teaching Descriptions Simple to Complex Tasks Listening Games Rhyming Words and Sentences Awareness of Syllables Initial and Final Sounds Phonemes Introducing Letters and Spellings Adams, M., Foorman, B., Lundberg, I., & Beeler, T. (1997). Phonemic awareness in young children: A classroom curriculum. Baltimore: Brookes. Just briefly introduce this next group of slides and note that they will learn the specifics the rest of the training time. Notice that it goes from Simple to complex tasks. SHOW BOOK.

76 Tier 2 Intervention Small Group Intensive Intervention
Children who have not mastered phonemic awareness as a result of classroom instruction. DIBELS Small group instruction (6 students) Fall: First Grade Spring: Kindergarten Teach a foundation of phonological awareness to include phonemic awareness and segmentation Materials: Intensive Phonological Awareness Manual Instructional Materials Kit

77 Intensive Phonological Awareness Program (IPAP)
Time Frame: min. sessions per week 18 hours of instruction Letter names/sounds reviewed each session Weeks 1-3: Rhyme Weeks 4-6: Initial Sounds Weeks 7-9: Final Sounds Weeks 10-12: Word Segmentation and Blending Schuele, C. M., & Dayton, N. (2000). Intensive phonological awareness program. Nashville, TN: With the last 6 weeks, they also incorporate a review of the alphabetic principle. Often these students have difficulty with letters and sounds. Also, research shows that you can increase PA if begin the connection to the alphabet.

78 School Team Roles Kindergarten Teacher:
Implement daily instruction with entire kindergarten class. SLP, Title I Reading Teacher and/or Special Education Teacher: Provide 12 week IPAP 6 first graders (Fall) and 6 kindergartners (Spring) collaborate with the kindergarten teacher in classroom-based instruction. First Grade Teacher: Reinforce phonemic awareness skills with entire class. Assessment Coordinator: Coordinate all assessment with kindergarten and first grade children. Contact Person: Coordinate program and share information from the WVDE. In the first year of participation, you may only want to include 1 kindergarten and first grade. In subsequent years, you may choose to expand the project to other classes in your school – depends on the resources and need in your school.

79 WVDE Project: Two Tiered Instruction in Kindergarten
September May September to May: Implement classroom supplemental curriculum September: Evaluate all K children in classroom January: Evaluate all K children in classroom. Identify 6 low achievers In Reading First, DIBELS will be given in September (not October). Other schools only use the October date if it will assist with classroom instruction. If not, wait until January to evaluate for the program. February to May: Implement small group intervention with low achievers . May: Evaluate all K children in classroom

80 WVDE Project: Two-Tiered Instruction in First Grade
August, September and October September to October: Implement classroom supplemental curriculum August/September: Evaluate all first grade children in classroom. Identify 6 low achievers September to December: Implement small group intervention with low achievers All students receive instruction in August, September and October. Right now, about 20% of kids fail to read. We can reduce this to 5% if we follow SBRR. . December: Evaluate low achievers

81 Children Need …. Initially to realize that words are composed of sounds. Initially to experience simple tasks of paying attention to sounds in words (e.g., rhyme). To move gradually from simple to more complex phonological awareness tasks, culminating in phonemic awareness tasks. Phonemic awareness to benefit from later decoding or phonics instruction. T0 BECOME SUCCESSFUL READERS!! just a reminder of some things kids need….

82 Technical Assistance Document
INTRODUCTION Project Overview Record Keeping Teacher Documentation Student Selection Monitoring School Contact Ordering Information for Program Materials Timeline

83 Program Implementation
Implementation of Phonemic Awareness in Young Children: Classroom Curriculum Kindergarten Classroom (p.8) Activity Implementation Record (p.11) First Grade Implementation (p.23) Activity Implementation Record (p. 24) Implementation of Intensive Phonemic Awareness Program (IPAP) (p.27) IPAP Record Form

84 TEAM DECISIONS Who will collaborate with the kindergarten teacher on the classroom instruction? Who will implement the 12 week intervention program with the group of 6 first grade children? Who will implement the 12 week intervention program with the group of 6 kindergarten children? In order for your team to proceed through this training in the next two days, you will have to make some decisions by the end of the morning. These decisions will determine who participates in what activities this afternoon and tomorrow.

85 Resource Information WVDE Power Point Presentation(p.35)
Notes Page/Website Informational Materials Research/Background Parent Notification Letter (p.37) Monitoring Documentation Form (p.38) Title I/Reading First/Special Ed Jean Pearcy School Contact Information Liaison w/ WVDE

86 Assessment Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS)
DIBELS Analysis: Kindergarten(p.41) DIBELS Analysis: First Grade (p. 42) Assessment Guide for IPAP (p.43) Paper/Pencil Booklets (p. 45) References (p. 49)

Wiley Ford Elementary, Mineral County “This was my first experience with the IPAP . I was very impressed. The student enjoyed it and made great progress for the exercises in the program.” Jamie Hill Special Ed IPAP Teacher Fort Gay Elementary , Wayne County Teachers and parents have come to me and said they have seen major improvement with these kids.” Crystal Young. IPAP instructor Point Pleasant Primary, Mason County We really believe that the emphasis on Phonemic Awareness in kindergarten and early first grade is making a difference in the reading success of our students. Lois Jones, Title I ,PA Instructor

88 MORE QUOTES Ceredo Elementary, Cabell County
They all have shown great improvement. I’m so proud of them! Christine Kelly, M. Ed, CCC – SLP Rosedale Elementary, Fayette County No funding for DIBELS in the first grade, so we are only doing kindergarten. Ted Dixon, Principal Vienna Elementary, Wood County We have very much enjoyed the IPAP program and can see how beneficial the program has been for our children. I am anxious to see if we get the same progress as we prepare to start the program with kindergarten. Lana Barlett, IPAP instructor, first year

89 This program really works!”
THE BOTTOM LINE Bonham Elementary, Kanawha County Patsy Serles, third year IPAP teacher “At first I was not sure about this program because of the repetition. But after three years and seeing the turnaround of struggling students who could master phonemic awareness, she said, ” I‘M A BELIEVER! This program really works!”

January Results ISF PSF NWF Total Benchmark 24% 20% 22% Strategic 56% 36% 35% 42% Deficit 46% 44% State 07-08 PSF Benchmark Strategic Deficit -34 NWF Benchmark Strategic -6 Deficit -18 Comparison State to 07-08 PSF Benchmark Strategic Deficit -2 NWF Benchmark -1 Strategic -2 Deficit + 12 Total Benchmark +4 Strategic -4 Deficit = May Results PSF NWF Total Benchmark 73% 45% 54% Strategic 26% 29% 27% Deficit 12% 19%

September Results PSF NWF Total Benchmark 32% 19% 26% Strategic 50% 45% 48% Deficit 18% 36% 27% January Results 76% 54% 21% 3% 10% PSF NWF Total Benchmark Strategic Deficit

92 Contact Information Kathy Knighton , Program Coordinator Phyllis Veith, Assistant Director Office of Special Programs Extended and Early Learning West Virginia Department of Education (304) or Fax (304)

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