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Status of Air Quality Standards for Criteria Pollutants EPA Region 2 Air Programs Branch Bob Kelly, Regional Air Modeler
Questions How does EPA sets air quality standards? What are the criteria pollutants for air? What is the status of revisions to the air quality standards?
Overview of NAAQS Reviews The Clean Air Act calls for national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for pollutants that may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health and welfare… from numerous or diverse mobile or stationary sources
Overview of NAAQS Reviews "Primary" standards protect public health with an adequate margin of safety; "Secondary" standards protect public welfare and the environment (crops, vegetation, wildlife, buildings & national monuments, visibility)
Overview of NAAQS Reviews EPA has set NAAQS for six common air pollutants: ground-level ozone, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide
Overview of NAAQS Reviews The Act requires EPA to review the scientific criteria and these standards at least once every five years, with advice from the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC)
Different Considerations Used in Setting and Achieving NAAQS Setting the Standards Health Effects Environmental Effects Achieving the Standards Costs Time to attain the standards Administrator sets the standard using scientific criteria (hence the criteria document), including an adequate margin of safety, protecting against hazards that science has not come to conclusion about or not yet identified.
Review Process for NAAQS
Air Quality Standards have several parts: Indicator Averaging time period Concentration of the standard How many times can it be exceeded?
National Ambient Air Quality Standards Pollutant Standard(s) Carbon Monoxide 9 ppm (10 mg/m3) 8-hour11 35 ppm (40 mg/m3)1-hour11 Lead1.5 µg/m3 Quarterly Average Nitrogen Dioxide0.053 ppm (100 µg/m3) Annual (Arithmetic Mean) Particulate Matter (PM10)50 µg/m3Annual2 (Arithmetic Mean) 150 ug/m324-hour1 21 Particulate Matter (PM2.5)15.0 µg/m3Annual3 ( Arithmetic Mean) 65 ug/m324-hour4 34 Ozone0.08 ppm 8-hour55 0.12 ppm1-hour66 Sulfur Oxides0.03 ppm Annual (Arithmetic Mean) 0.14 ppm24-hour11 3-hour10.5 ppm (1300 ug/m3) (Secondary Standard)1 All are Health-based Primary Standards, except as noted.
Footnotes to Table of Standards 1 Not to be exceeded more than once per year. 2 To attain this standard, the expected annual arithmetic mean PM10 concentration at each monitor within an area must not exceed 50 ug/m3. 3 To attain this standard, the 3-year average of the annual arithmetic mean PM2.5 concentrations from single or multiple community-oriented monitors must not exceed 15.0 ug/m3. 4 To attain this standard, the 3-year average of the 98th percentile of 24-hour concentrations at each population-oriented monitor within an area must not exceed 65 ug/m3. 5 To attain this standard, the 3-year average of the fourth-highest daily maximum 8- hour average ozone concentrations measured at each monitor within an area over each year must not exceed 0.08 ppm. 6 (a) The standard is attained when the expected number of days per calendar year with maximum hourly average concentrations above 0.12 ppm is <= 1, as determined by appendix H. (b) The 1-hour NAAQS will no longer apply to an area one year after the effective date of the designation of that area for the 8-hour ozone NAAQS. The effective designation date for most areas is June 15, 2004. (40 CFR 50.9; see Federal Register of April 30, 2004 (69 FR 23996).)
Larger particles (> PM 10 ) deposit in the upper respiratory tract Smaller, inhalable particles ( PM 10 ) penetrate into the lungs PM 10-2.5 are thoracic coarse PM PM 2.5 go deeper than PM 10-2.5 Smallest particles (ultrafines, PM 0.1 ) may enter bloodstream Deposited particles may accumulate, react, be cleared or absorbed Particulate Matter
First set in 1971 as Total Suspended Particulates – annual and 24-hr std Revised in 1987 as PM 10 Revised in 1997 as PM 10 and PM 2.5 1987 PM 10 standard still in use – new PM 10 standard stayed by Supreme Court Ruling Latest: Final Criteria Document October 2004 2nd draft of EPA staff paper at CASAC Next Step: Clean Air Science Advisory Council reviews draft staff paper April 2005 Propose standards, if needed, December 2005 Final Rule by September 27, 2006
Draft Staff Paper Recommendations for PM Provisional staff recommendations, not EPA policy PM 2.5 –Annual 15ug/m3 and 24-hr 35 to 25 –Annual 14 to 12 and 24-hr 40 to 35 PM 10-2.5 -24-hour equivalent to present PM10 standard = 65 to 85ug/m3 -Support standard as low as 30 to 35 -Annual standard may be supported -Secondary PM 2.5 of 30 to 20ug/m3 over 4 to 8 hours for visibility.
Ozone First set in 1971 - 1-hour standard Revised in 1979 Present Standard: 8-hour average standard set 1997 1- hour standard expires June 2005 Status of Review: 1st Draft Criteria Document 2005 Comment period closes May 2, 2005 Criteria document final February 2006
Sulfur Dioxide Set in 1971 Affirmed in 1996 States to review monitored 5 minute concentrations above concern level of 0.6 ppm and act at endangerment level of 2.0 ppm Lead First set in 1978 Most recent Criteria Document completed in 1986, supplemented in 1990 EPA started review in 2004 Projected to have final Criteria Document by February 2007
Nitrogen Dioxide Set in 1971 Reviewed in 1996 EPA declined to set short-term standard Carbon Monoxide First set in 1971 Standard retained 1994 Most recent Criteria Document completed in 2000 Non-methane hydrocarbons Not a health standard, set as target to meet ozone health standard Revoked in 1980s.
Public Awareness of Air Quality NJDEP stations mostly automated NJ has provided pollution data and forecasts via phone message, TV and now the Internet EPA/State collaboration: near-real-time pollution data for PM and ozone via AIRNOW at: epa.gov/airnow/
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