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Earth’s Changing Environment Lecture 3 Air Quality.

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Presentation on theme: "Earth’s Changing Environment Lecture 3 Air Quality."— Presentation transcript:

1 Earth’s Changing Environment Lecture 3 Air Quality

2 The Environmental Protection Agency Created in 1970 Created in

3 EPA Environmental Protection Agency Mike LeavittChristine Todd Whitman

4 Clean Air Acts 1955, 1963, 1970, 1990

5 Clean Air Act of 1990 air-quality standards air-quality standards motor vehicle emissions & alternative fuels motor vehicle emissions & alternative fuels toxic air pollutants toxic air pollutants acid rain acid rain stratospheric ozone depletion stratospheric ozone depletion

6 Air Quality Standards National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Six Criteria Pollutants Six Criteria Pollutants Carbon Monoxide Carbon Monoxide Nitrogen dioxide Nitrogen dioxide Sulfur dioxide Sulfur dioxide Lead Lead Particulate Matter Particulate Matter Ozone Ozone Primary standards set limits to protect public health, including the health of "sensitive" populations such as asthmatics, children, and the elderly. Primary standards set limits to protect public health, including the health of "sensitive" populations such as asthmatics, children, and the elderly. Secondary standards set limits to protect public welfare, including protection against decreased visibility, damage to animals, crops, vegetation, and buildings. Secondary standards set limits to protect public welfare, including protection against decreased visibility, damage to animals, crops, vegetation, and buildings.

7 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Primary (No Secondary) Primary (No Secondary) 8-hour Average9 ppm (10 mg/m3) 8-hour Average9 ppm (10 mg/m3) 1-hour Average35 ppm (40 mg/m3) 1-hour Average35 ppm (40 mg/m3)

8 Nitrogen Dioxide (NO 2 ) Nitrogen Dioxide (NO 2 ) Primary & Secondary Primary & Secondary Annual Arithmetic Mean ppm (100 µg/m3) Annual Arithmetic Mean ppm (100 µg/m3)

9 Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2 ) Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2 ) Primary Primary Annual Arithmetic Mean 0.03 ppm (80 µg/m3) Annual Arithmetic Mean 0.03 ppm (80 µg/m3) 24-hour Average 0.14 ppm (365 µg/m3) 24-hour Average 0.14 ppm (365 µg/m3) Secondary Secondary 3-hour Average 0.50 ppm (1300 µg/m3) 3-hour Average 0.50 ppm (1300 µg/m3)

10 Lead (Pb) Lead (Pb) Primary & Secondary Primary & Secondary Quarterly Average 1.5 µg/m3 Quarterly Average 1.5 µg/m3

11 Particulate (PM 10) Particulate (PM 10) Primary & Secondary Primary & Secondary Annual Arithmetic Mean 50 µg/m3 Annual Arithmetic Mean 50 µg/m3 24-hour Average 150 µg/m3 24-hour Average 150 µg/m3

12 Particulate (PM 2.5) Particulate (PM 2.5) Primary & Secondary Primary & Secondary Annual Arithmetic Mean 15 µg/m3 Annual Arithmetic Mean 15 µg/m3 24-hour Average 65 µg/m3 24-hour Average 65 µg/m3

13 Ozone (O 3 ) Primary & Secondary Primary & Secondary 1-hour Average 125 ppb (235 µg/m3) 1-hour Average 125 ppb (235 µg/m3) 8-hour Average 85 ppb (157 µg/m3) 8-hour Average 85 ppb (157 µg/m3) The new, more rigorous, 8-hour standard is in the process of being implemented by EPA The new, more rigorous, 8-hour standard is in the process of being implemented by EPA

14 Attainment of NAAQS Most areas of the US have achieved attainment status. Most areas of the US have achieved attainment status. Most Areas with unhealthy air have problems with ozone and/or particulates Most Areas with unhealthy air have problems with ozone and/or particulates

15 1-hour Ozone Standard

16 O3 Nonattainment An area meets the ozone NAAQS if there is no more than one day per year when the highest hourly value exceeds the threshold. An area meets the ozone NAAQS if there is no more than one day per year when the highest hourly value exceeds the threshold. Generally, the fourth highest monitored value with 3 complete years of data is selected as the updated air quality value because the standard allows one exceedance for each year. Generally, the fourth highest monitored value with 3 complete years of data is selected as the updated air quality value because the standard allows one exceedance for each year. To be in attainment, a region must meet the criteria for 3 consecutive years. To be in attainment, a region must meet the criteria for 3 consecutive years.

17 O3 Nonattainment Information about nonattainment areas: Look in detail at California Ozone nonattainment areas Look at LA air basin Pasadena site. Look in detail at August 26, 2001.

18 What is causing this problem?


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