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State of the Air Quality in South Carolina Rhonda B. Thompson, P.E. Assistant Bureau Chief Bureau of Air Quality.

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Presentation on theme: "State of the Air Quality in South Carolina Rhonda B. Thompson, P.E. Assistant Bureau Chief Bureau of Air Quality."— Presentation transcript:

1 State of the Air Quality in South Carolina Rhonda B. Thompson, P.E. Assistant Bureau Chief Bureau of Air Quality

2 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Clean Air Act requires EPA to review NAAQS every 5 years – Litigation, court-order deadlines, accelerated schedules Six Criteria Pollutants: – Ozone (O 3 ) – Particulate Matter (PM) – Nitrogen Dioxide (NO 2 ) – Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2 ) – Lead (Pb) – Carbon Monoxide (CO) States have primary responsibility for ensuring attainment (compliance) of NAAQS once established by EPA

3 NAAQS Standards Primary Standards – protect public health with an ample margin of safety (especially children, the elderly, and persons with respiratory problems) Secondary Standards – protect public welfare (soil, water, visibility wildlife, crops, vegetation, national monuments, buildings)

4 NAAQS Designations & Boundaries Designations – “Attainment”, “Non-attainment”, “Unclassifiable” – Ambient monitoring stations (3-year averages) Boundaries – partial counties, metropolitan planning organization (MPO) boundaries, entire county, metropolitan statistical areas (MSA), or larger – Can cross state lines (NC, GA)

5 Designations “Attainment” – Meeting the standard, in compliance “Unclassifiable” – Cannot be classified, lack of available data “Non-attainment” – Not meeting the standard, non-compliance – Classifications: extreme, severe, moderate, marginal

6 Non-attainment Designation Impacts Public Health Impacts – Respiratory illnesses, irritations – Sensitive populations most at risk Air Permitting Impacts – More stringent control devices ($) – Purchase offsets within area Economic Impact – Vehicle Inspection & Maintenance (I&M) program – Transportation Conformity – Possibly less industry growth

7 SIP Process State Implementation Plan (SIP) – Written plan showing how State will get back into attainment, continue to attain standards – Available Tools: National/federal measures – mobile sources (fuel economy standards, etc) and industry standards State standards, revisions Air permit restrictions Voluntary measures – working with local government, industry, public

8 Voluntary Measures Lawn mower exchanges Gas can exchanges Car Care events Anti-open burning campaigns Anti-idling campaigns Carpooling/Rideshare programs School bus retrofits (grant funding, enforcement settlements)

9 Ozone NAAQS How formed? VOC and NOx react in the presence of heat and sunlight, also known as “smog” March 2008: EPA reduced standard from 0.08 ppm to 0.075 ppm September 2009: New EPA Administration announced it would reconsider 2008 standard – Outside CASAC’s recommended range January 19, 2010 – new proposed range – Primary: 0.060 – 0.070 ppm – Secondary: 7-15 ppm

10 Ozone NAAQS August 31, 2010 – EPA finalizes standards January 2011 – States must submit recommended non-attainment/ attainment boundaries April 2011 – EPA will propose boundaries in Federal Register August 2011 – EPA finalizes boundaries in Federal Register December 2013 – SIPs due to EPA 2014 – 2031 – States demonstrate attainment (depending on severity)






16 Ozone 2010 Summary Monitor2008200920102010 Number of HitsDV through: * Ashton706069066 Big Creek656171265 Bushy Park675566062 Congaree Bluff735963065 Chesterfield7266680 Clemson806671072 Cowpens795769168 Cape Romain7163670 Due West7461670 Famoda Farms65 70166 Hilcrest 67690 Jackson756864069 Longcreek7266 068 N. Spartanburg856773275 Pee Dee766571070 Parklane7764702 Sandhill776672171 Trenton7163 065 York756264067 * =based on unofficial data through 7-13-2010



19 PM 2.5 NAAQS Particulate matter with a diameter < 2.5 microns in size (also called “PM fine”) – Not visible to naked eye, penetrate deep in lungs, more harmful than PM 10 – Combustion sources (stationary and mobile) Current Standard – Primary Annual average: 15 ug/m3 – Primary 24-hr average: 35 ug/m3 – Secondary: Same as primary No South Carolina monitor currently exceeding daily or annual standard (1 “unclassifiable” area)

20 PM 2.5 NAAQS Next proposed standard 11/2010 Finalize standard 07/2011 Suggested Proposed Scenarios – Annual: 12 – 13 µg/m 3 (range) – 24-hr: stay at 35 µg/m 3 ; or 30 - 35 µg/m 3 (range) OR – Annual: 10 – 11 µg/m 3 (range) – 24-hr: 25 - 30 µg/m 3 (range)






26 NO 2 NAAQS Largest contributors: mobile vehicles, power plants, industrial sources burning fuel New standard finalized January 22, 2010; effective April 12, 2010 – New 1-hr standard (100 ppb); annual standard retained (53 ppb) South Carolina currently attaining the standard statewide – Additional monitors in largest metropolitan areas ($$) – Possible “near road” monitors near busiest interstates ($$, safety) – Many facilities having difficulty meeting 1-hr modeling requirements for air permits

27 SO 2 NAAQS December 2009: New SO 2 1-hr standard proposed range (50 – 100 ppb) June 2, 2010: SO 2 final rule (75 ppb); effective August 1, 2010 – Irmo monitor reading ~ 80 ppb New hybrid monitor/modeling approach: states may use refined modeling to demonstrate compliance – Areas deemed “unclassifiable” without adequate monitoring data or modeling Additional monitors may be needed in Charlotte and Augusta areas

28 Lead NAAQS Largest contributors: lead-based fuels (aviation), lead processing industries November 2008: New lead standard; 10-fold decrease – 150 ng/m 3 (new standard) South Carolina attaining the standard statewide – Additional monitoring at Parklane (Columbia) – Large lead emitters (emissions > 1 ton/year) require site-specific monitor (proposed rule to lower site-specific monitoring threshold to ½ ton/year) – Some new facilities will require site-specific monitors

29 CO NAAQS All areas in South Carolina meet current standard October 29, 2010: New CO standard will be proposed May 12, 2011: EPA finalizes new CO standard

30 What you can do now? Review all proposed standards and submit written comments to the EPA Push for national multi-pollutant strategies Participate in local partnerships/stakeholder groups Participate in upcoming boundary meetings Take actions to reduce emissions – Voluntary measures – Reduce energy consumption

31 Questions Rhonda B. Thompson, P.E. Assistant Bureau Chief Bureau of Air Quality – SCDHEC (803)898-4391

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