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State of the Air Quality in South Carolina Rhonda B. Thompson, P.E. Assistant Bureau Chief Bureau of Air Quality.

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Presentation on theme: "State of the Air Quality in South Carolina Rhonda B. Thompson, P.E. Assistant Bureau Chief Bureau of Air Quality."— Presentation transcript:

1 State of the Air Quality in South Carolina Rhonda B. Thompson, P.E. Assistant Bureau Chief Bureau of Air Quality

2 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Clean Air Act requires EPA to review NAAQS every 5 years – Litigation, court-order deadlines, accelerated schedules Six Criteria Pollutants: – Ozone (O 3 ) – Particulate Matter (PM) – Nitrogen Dioxide (NO 2 ) – Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2 ) – Lead (Pb) – Carbon Monoxide (CO) States have primary responsibility for ensuring attainment (compliance) of NAAQS once established by EPA

3 NAAQS Standards Primary Standards – protect public health with an ample margin of safety (especially children, the elderly, and persons with respiratory problems) Secondary Standards – protect public welfare (soil, water, visibility wildlife, crops, vegetation, national monuments, buildings)

4 NAAQS Designations & Boundaries Designations – “Attainment”, “Non-attainment”, “Unclassifiable” – Ambient monitoring stations (3-year averages) Boundaries – partial counties, metropolitan planning organization (MPO) boundaries, entire county, metropolitan statistical areas (MSA), or larger – Can cross state lines (NC, GA)

5 Designations “Attainment” – Meeting the standard, in compliance “Unclassifiable” – Cannot be classified, lack of available data “Non-attainment” – Not meeting the standard, non-compliance – Classifications: extreme, severe, moderate, marginal

6 Non-attainment Designation Impacts Public Health Impacts – Respiratory illnesses, irritations – Sensitive populations most at risk Air Permitting Impacts – More stringent control devices ($) – Purchase offsets within area Economic Impact – Vehicle Inspection & Maintenance (I&M) program – Transportation Conformity – Possibly less industry growth

7 SIP Process State Implementation Plan (SIP) – Written plan showing how State will get back into attainment, continue to attain standards – Available Tools: National/federal measures – mobile sources (fuel economy standards, etc) and industry standards State standards, revisions Air permit restrictions Voluntary measures – working with local government, industry, public

8 Voluntary Measures Lawn mower exchanges Gas can exchanges Car Care events Anti-open burning campaigns Anti-idling campaigns Carpooling/Rideshare programs School bus retrofits (grant funding, enforcement settlements)

9 Ozone NAAQS How formed? VOC and NOx react in the presence of heat and sunlight, also known as “smog” March 2008: EPA reduced standard from 0.08 ppm to ppm September 2009: New EPA Administration announced it would reconsider 2008 standard – Outside CASAC’s recommended range January 19, 2010 – new proposed range – Primary: – ppm – Secondary: 7-15 ppm

10 Ozone NAAQS August 31, 2010 – EPA finalizes standards January 2011 – States must submit recommended non-attainment/ attainment boundaries April 2011 – EPA will propose boundaries in Federal Register August 2011 – EPA finalizes boundaries in Federal Register December 2013 – SIPs due to EPA 2014 – 2031 – States demonstrate attainment (depending on severity)

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16 Ozone 2010 Summary Monitor Number of HitsDV through: * Ashton Big Creek Bushy Park Congaree Bluff Chesterfield Clemson Cowpens Cape Romain Due West Famoda Farms Hilcrest Jackson Longcreek N. Spartanburg Pee Dee Parklane Sandhill Trenton York * =based on unofficial data through

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19 PM 2.5 NAAQS Particulate matter with a diameter < 2.5 microns in size (also called “PM fine”) – Not visible to naked eye, penetrate deep in lungs, more harmful than PM 10 – Combustion sources (stationary and mobile) Current Standard – Primary Annual average: 15 ug/m3 – Primary 24-hr average: 35 ug/m3 – Secondary: Same as primary No South Carolina monitor currently exceeding daily or annual standard (1 “unclassifiable” area)

20 PM 2.5 NAAQS Next proposed standard 11/2010 Finalize standard 07/2011 Suggested Proposed Scenarios – Annual: 12 – 13 µg/m 3 (range) – 24-hr: stay at 35 µg/m 3 ; or µg/m 3 (range) OR – Annual: 10 – 11 µg/m 3 (range) – 24-hr: µg/m 3 (range)

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26 NO 2 NAAQS Largest contributors: mobile vehicles, power plants, industrial sources burning fuel New standard finalized January 22, 2010; effective April 12, 2010 – New 1-hr standard (100 ppb); annual standard retained (53 ppb) South Carolina currently attaining the standard statewide – Additional monitors in largest metropolitan areas ($$) – Possible “near road” monitors near busiest interstates ($$, safety) – Many facilities having difficulty meeting 1-hr modeling requirements for air permits

27 SO 2 NAAQS December 2009: New SO 2 1-hr standard proposed range (50 – 100 ppb) June 2, 2010: SO 2 final rule (75 ppb); effective August 1, 2010 – Irmo monitor reading ~ 80 ppb New hybrid monitor/modeling approach: states may use refined modeling to demonstrate compliance – Areas deemed “unclassifiable” without adequate monitoring data or modeling Additional monitors may be needed in Charlotte and Augusta areas

28 Lead NAAQS Largest contributors: lead-based fuels (aviation), lead processing industries November 2008: New lead standard; 10-fold decrease – 150 ng/m 3 (new standard) South Carolina attaining the standard statewide – Additional monitoring at Parklane (Columbia) – Large lead emitters (emissions > 1 ton/year) require site-specific monitor (proposed rule to lower site-specific monitoring threshold to ½ ton/year) – Some new facilities will require site-specific monitors

29 CO NAAQS All areas in South Carolina meet current standard October 29, 2010: New CO standard will be proposed May 12, 2011: EPA finalizes new CO standard

30 What you can do now? Review all proposed standards and submit written comments to the EPA Push for national multi-pollutant strategies Participate in local partnerships/stakeholder groups Participate in upcoming boundary meetings Take actions to reduce emissions – Voluntary measures – Reduce energy consumption

31 Questions Rhonda B. Thompson, P.E. Assistant Bureau Chief Bureau of Air Quality – SCDHEC (803)


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