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©Prentice Hall 20036-1 Understanding Psychology 6 th Edition Charles G. Morris and Albert A. Maisto PowerPoint Presentation by H. Lynn Bradman Metropolitan Community College
©Prentice Hall 20036-2 Chapter 6 Memory
©Prentice Hall 20036-3 Information-Processing Model A computer-like model used to describe the way humans encode, store, and retrieve information. –Encoding: Getting information into memory –Storage: Retaining information –Retrieval: Getting information out of memory
©Prentice Hall 20036-4 Encoding Analogy Computer: –A keyboard or other input device is used to encode information. Human: –Information from the senses is received.
©Prentice Hall 20036-5 Storage Analogy Computer: –Information is stored on the hard drive. Human: –Information is stored in memory.
©Prentice Hall 20036-6 Retrieval Analogy Computer: –Information is retrieved by loading a program/file. Human: –Information is retrieved by bringing it into consciousness.
©Prentice Hall 20036-7 Two Types of Sensory Registers Iconic: –Sensory memory of visual stimuli, lasting less than a second Echoic: –Sensory memory of acoustical stimuli, lasting 3 to 4 seconds
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©Prentice Hall 20036-9 Short-Term Memory (STM) Capacity: –STM can hold as much information as can be repeated or rehearsed in 1.5 to 2 seconds. Chunking (the grouping of information into meaningful units) can increase the amount of information contained in STM.
©Prentice Hall 20036-10 Forgetting in STM Decay theory: –A theory that argues that the passage of time causes forgetting. Interference theory: –A theory that argues interference from other information causes forgetting.
©Prentice Hall 20036-11 Two Types of Rehearsal Rote rehearsal: –Retaining information in STM simply by repeating it over and over. Elaborative rehearsal: –The linking of new information in STM to familiar material stored in long-term memory.
©Prentice Hall 20036-12 Long-Term Memory LTM Long-term memory (LTM) is more or less permanent and stores everything we “know.” Long-term memory can store a vast amount of information that can last for many years. Most of the information in LTM seems to be encoded according to its meaning.
©Prentice Hall 20036-13 The Serial Position Effect Short and long-term memory work together to explain the serial position effect. When given a list of items to remember, people tend to recall the first and last items in the list better than words in the middle.
©Prentice Hall 20036-14 The Serial Position Effect The recency effect explains that end-words are still held in STM. The primacy effect describes the extra LTM rehearsal given to first words in the list.
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©Prentice Hall 20036-16 Maintaining in LTM Rote rehearsal: –Retaining information in STM simply by repeating it over and over. Elaborative rehearsal: –The linking of new information in STM to familiar material stored in long-term memory.
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©Prentice Hall 20036-18 Schemata A schema is a mental representation of an object or event that is stored in memory. Schemata provide a framework into which incoming information is fitted. They may prompt the formation of stereotypes and the drawing of inferences
©Prentice Hall 20036-19 Types of LTM Episodic memory: –The portion of long-term memory that stores personally experienced events. Semantic memory: –The portion of long-term memory that stores general facts and information.
©Prentice Hall 20036-20 Types of LTM Procedural memory: –The portion of long-term memory that stores information relating to skills, habits, and other perceptual-motor tasks. Emotional memory: –Learned emotional responses to various stimuli.
©Prentice Hall 20036-21 Explicit Memory Memory for information that was intentionally committed to memory or intentionally retrieved from memory. Explicit memory refers to memories we are aware of, including episodic and semantic memories.
©Prentice Hall 20036-22 Implicit memory Implicit memory refers to memories for information that either was not intentionally committed to LTM or is retrieved unintentionally from LTM, including procedural and emotional memories.
©Prentice Hall 20036-23 The Biology of Memory
©Prentice Hall 20036-24 Where are Memories Stored? Memories are stored in various regions of the brain through a process called consolidation. Memories consist of changes in the chemistry and structure of neurons. The process by which these changes occur, called consolidation, is often very slow.
©Prentice Hall 20036-25 STM and LTM There is no one place where all memories are stored. Research has shown that different parts of the brain are specialized for the storage of memories. Short-term memories seem to be located primarily in the prefrontal cortex and temporal lobe. Long-term memories seem to involve both sub- cortical and cortical structures.
©Prentice Hall 20036-26 STM and LTM Semantic and episodic memories seem to be located primarily in the frontal and temporal lobes of the cortex, and Procedural memories appear to be located primarily in the cerebellum and motor cortex.
©Prentice Hall 20036-27 STM and LTM A brain structure called the hippocampus seems especially important in the consolidation of semantic, episodic, and procedural memories. Emotional memories are dependent on the amygdala.
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©Prentice Hall 20036-29 Forgetting Both biological and environmental factors can contribute to our inability to recall information. According to the decay theory, memories deteriorate because of the passage of time. Severe memory loss can be traced to brain damage caused by accidents, surgery, poor diet, or disease.
©Prentice Hall 20036-30 Forgetting Head injuries can cause retrograde amnesia, the inability of people to remember what happened shortly before their accident. Some studies have focused on the role of the hippocampus in long-term memory formation. Other research has emphasized the role of neurotransmitters, especially acetylcholine, in the memory process.
©Prentice Hall 20036-31 Types of LTM Interference Retroactive: –The process by which new information interferes with the retrieval of old information. Proactive: –The process by which old information interferes with the retrieval of new information.
©Prentice Hall 20036-32 State-Dependent Learning When environmental cues that were present during learning are absent during recall, cue- dependent forgetting may occur. The ability to recall information is also affected by one's physiological state when the material was learned. This process is known as state-dependent memory.
©Prentice Hall 20036-33 The Reconstructive Process Sometimes we "reconstruct" memories for social or personal self-defense as demonstrated in research about eyewitness testimony.
©Prentice Hall 20036-34 Improving Your Memory A number of steps can be taken to improve recall: –Develop motivation. –Practice memory skills. –Be confident in your ability to remember. Minimize distractions. –Stay focused.
©Prentice Hall 20036-35 Improving Your Memory –Make connections between new material and other information already stored in your long-term memory, using such techniques as mnemonics. –Use both mental imagery and retrieval cues. –Rely on more than memory alone. –Be aware that your own personal schemata may distort your recall of events.
©Prentice Hall 20036-36 Special Topics in Memory
©Prentice Hall 20036-37 What Factors Can Influence How Well You Remember? The values and customs of a given culture have a profound effect on what people remember and how easily they recall it. So do the emotions we attach to a memory, with some emotion-laden events being remembered for life.
©Prentice Hall 20036-38 What Factors Can Influence How Well You Remember? Also affecting how well we remember are the strategies we use to store and retrieve information. Many Western schools stress being able to recall long lists of words, facts, and figures that are divorced from everyday life. In societies in which cultural information is passed on through a rich oral tradition may instead emphasize memory for events that directly affect people's lives.
©Prentice Hall 20036-39 Autobiographical Memory Autobiographical memory refers to recollection of events from one's life. Not all of these events are recalled with equal clarity, of course, and some are not recalled at all. Autobiographical memories are typically strongest for events that had a major impact on our lives or that aroused strong emotion.
©Prentice Hall 20036-40 Childhood Amnesia Childhood amnesia: –May result from the incomplete development of brain structures before age 2 –From the infants' lack of a clear sense of self –From the lack of language skills used to consolidate early experience –Or childhood amnesia may be more related to an adult's inability to recall memories that were, in fact, stored during the first two years.
©Prentice Hall 20036-41 Flashbulb Memory Years after a dramatic or significant event occurs, people often have vivid memories of that event as well as the incidents surrounding it. These memories are known as flashbulb memories.
©Prentice Hall 20036-42 Flashbulb Memory According to the now "print" theory, the event triggers a mechanism in the brain that captures the memory, prints it like a photograph, and stores it for a long time. Recent research has challenged the assumptions that flashbulb memories are accurate and stable.
©Prentice Hall 20036-43 Recovered Memories People may experience a traumatic event, lose all memory of it, but then later recall it. Such recovered memories are highly controversial, since research shows that people can be induced to "remember" events that never happened. So far there is no clear way to distinguish real recovered memories from false ones.
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