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NASA HQ Spectrum Management Office

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1 NASA HQ Spectrum Management Office
Passive Remote Sensing: allocations, sensors, measurements and applications Workshop on Disaster Communications Bandung, Indonesia, 28 March 2007 SESSION 1: PANEL ON KEY ELEMENTS TO EMERGENCY TELECOMMUNICATIONS Topic: ”Remote sensing for disaster prediction, detection, response, and relief” Abstract: Remote sensing provides information to administrations and authorities throughout the entire cycle of disaster events. Microwave remote sensing was first recognized as a radiocommunication service (Earth Exploration Satellite Service) by the ITU-R World Radio Conference The United Nations General Assembly Resolution A/Res/41/65 “Principles relating to remote sensing of the Earth from space” provides that: “Remote sensing activities shall be carried out for the benefit and in the interests of all countries, irrespective of their degree of economic, social or scientific and technological development, and taking into particular consideration the needs of the developing countries.” This presentation provides material on the capability and role of remote sensing for disaster prediction, detection, response, and relief. Speaker Biographical Sketch: Thomas vonDeak is a member of the NASA Headquarters Spectrum Management Office (SMO) located at Glenn Research Center and now represents NASA's interests in the US domestic and international regulatory process. Mr vonDeak has represented NASA in the International Telecommunications Union Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R) in the areas of UltraWideBand device impact on radiocommunication services and the impact of unwanted emissions on sensor operation in purely passive bands. Mr vonDeak has served as the chairman of the Space Frequency Coordination Group(SFCG) Intersessional Working Group on EESS downlinks in the X-Band(IWG-EESS)and chaired two international EESS-X-Band Workshops. He is currently the chairman of the SFCG IWG on Disaster Management (IWG-DM) cataloging space-based sensors applications used in the area of disaster management. Mr vonDeak is also the Rapporteur of the ITU-D Study Question 22/2 "Utilization of Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) for disaster management and active and passive sensing systems as they apply to disaster prediction, detection and mitigation" NASA HQ Spectrum Management Office REMOTE SENSING WORKSHOP Geneva, Switzerland 11 December 2007

2 Passive Sensing Radio Regulation No. 1.183 (definition)
Passive Sensor: A measuring instrument in the earth exploration- satellite service or in the space research service by means of which information is obtained by reception of radio waves of natural origin. Radio waves of natural origin are emissions from the ground, air, and water. All objects emit radio waves and the emissions convey information about those objects.

3 Remote sensing is a layered system
Remote sensing is implemented in layers from terrestrial in-situ deployment, airborne campaigns, low-earth orbit missions, and geo-synchronous satellites. The data of many remote sensing missions is integrated with data of other missions at different vantage points. Data collected from different vantage points validates the overall data and increases the range of application to societal benefits. This is not to say however that all remote sensor data is interconnected. Any given instrument may be completely independent of other instruments.

4 The complete remote sensing system addresses societal concerns
As a conceptual model this diagram portrays the flow of data from the missions through the mission operations and experts associated with the mission (Data Management System) through to the application areas which confer societal benefits. This should not be taken to infer that all remote sensing operations are connected together into a single integrated system. Indeed, this model is replicated many times over for numerous systems that have no real interaction with one another.

5 Use of the Passive Bands
Passive sensors are designed to receive and measure natural emissions produced by the Earth’s surface and its atmosphere. The frequency and strength of these natural emissions characterize the type and status of many important geophysical, which describe the status of the Earth/Atmosphere/Oceans System: Earth surface parameters such as soil moisture, sea surface temperature, ice extension and age, snow cover, rainfall over land, etc ... ; Three-dimensional atmospheric parameters (low, medium, and upper atmosphere) such as wind circulation, temperature profiles, water vapour content and concentration profiles of radiatively and chemically important trace gazes (for instance O3, SO2 and ClO).

6 Use of the Passive Bands
Microwave observations at frequencies below 100 GHz enable studies of the Earth’s surface and its atmosphere from spaceborne instruments even in the presence of clouds, because clouds are almost transparent at these frequencies. This "all-weather" observing capability has been very important for EESS in achieving the repetitive global coverage mandatory for meteorological, climatological, and environmental monitoring and surveying. The impressive progress made in recent years in weather analysis, warning and forecasts, especially for dangerous weather phenomena that affect all populations and economies is largely attributable to the spaceborne observations and their assimilation in numerical models. Play a major role in the prediction and detection of disasters.

7 Use of the Passive Bands
Typical bands and their main application:  MHz: salinity (ocean), soil moisture (ground)  MHz: rain, snow, ice, sea state, ocean wind  GHz: total content of water vapour  GHz: the lowest cumulated effects due to oxygen and water vapour in the vicinity of the 50 GHz band. Optimum window channel to see the Earth’s surface: reference for the other channels. 36-37 GHz: cloud liquid water, vegetation structure, surface roughness  GHz: temperature profile

8 Passive Sensors observe through the atmosphere

9 Sensitivity of Brightness Temperature to Geophysical Parameters over Land Surface

10 Microwave and Millimeter-wave Spectrum Spectral Sensitivity to Environmental Parameters: Ocean Scene

11 Aqua Instruments – AMSR-E
Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS 12-Channels, 6 frequencies GHz dual-polarization km footprint at nadir All weather

12 AMSR-E Products Precipitation Rate Cloud Water
Surface wind speed over oceans Sea Surface Temperature Ice, Snow and Soil Moisture

13 Aqua Instruments – AMSU/A
Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit 15 Microwave Channels GHz ~40 km footprint at nadir All-Weather


15 Global composite of brightness temperature (K) From AMSU-A Channel 3

16 Radiation Measurements to Vertical Soundings
AIRS and AMSU data combined to create vertical soundings of temperature and humidity Air and/or water vapor at various heights (pressures) contribute to the total radiation measurement viewed from space. The contribution peaks at different pressures for different wavelengths

17 Improve Accuracy of Severe Weather Warnings
Nores: Hurricane track prediction has improved about 20% over the last 10 years, due in part to both spaceborne and airborne EESS observations This year, for the first time, 5-day tropical storm and hurricane forecasts were issued Timely, accurate, and cost-effective public warnings and forecasts of severe weather events, reduce the potential loss of human life and property and advance the national economy. This becomes more important as more people live and develop property along the coastlines. Microwave Imagery and Sounding products improve prediction of precipitation, surface wind speed and direction Increase in hurricane landfall forecast skill saves an estimated $1 million per mile of coastline that does not have to be evacuated Improved observations yield improved early warnings, which in turn mitigate the devastating effects of floods through disaster planning and response

Disaster Management EARTH SYSTEM MODELS Earthquake: MMI, Quakesim Hurricane: HURRSIM Flood: SLOSH, WAVEwatch, STWAVE, HURSURGE Land: GPS Network, SBEACH Building Cost Models: ATC-13 Building Structure Models: EPEDAT Predictions DECISION SUPPORT TOOLS HAZUS-MH (Hazards U.S. - Multi Hazard) Earthquake prediction Floods Hurricane & Typhoons Land Surface Topography Global Precipitation Ocean Surface Winds Surface Deformation Motions of the Earth’s Interior Disaster Recovery/ Mitigation Land use decision Potential economic loss Estimation of direct damage, induced damage, direct losses, and indirect losses Accurate risk prediction to communities Loss estimates of buildings, essential facilities, transportation & utility lifelines, and population Social impacts VALUE & BENEFITS Identify/ Prioritize high-risk communities Reduction in lives lost Reduction in damage cost Anticipate the scope of disaster-related damage Improve disaster response Community Planning *Supported Non-NASA Model Data For each of the application areas a chart is provided describing the flow of data and data products through the modeling and decision process associated with the societal benefits. Please note that these are not exhaustive examinations and include modeling which is experimental in nature and not proven for operational use. In particular, earth quake modeling is experimental. Also provided on the chart are the US agencies and bureaus collaborating in the decision process. EARTH OBSERVATORIES Land: Landsat, SRTM, GPS, SCIGN, Terra, Aqua Ocean: QuickSCAT, Seawinds, IceSAT, GOES, POES, SSMI, JASON, TOPEX/POSEIDON Atmosphere: TRMM, GOES, POES, GPM, NPP, NPOESS Observations *Future Mission

19 Disaster Related Remote Sensing Applications
Weather Prediction: a key input to numerical weather prediction models used globally for weather forecasting. (Microwave(passive)) Global Warming: concentrations and distributions of atmospheric gases, sea and land ice thickness and change, and ozone measurements are key components to studying and prediction of global warming. (Microwave(passive), Infrared) Severe Weather Events: the prediction of severe weather events requires accurate measurements of rain rates in storms over the oceans which is only possible with remote sensing satellites. (Microwave(passive)) Forest Fires: detection of fires through smoke by their microwave radiation. (Infrared) The next two charts provide descriptions of the uses of space based remote sensors in disaster related application areas.

20 Key Applications (continued)
Management of Natural Resources: measurements of biomass, deforestation, and water resources through systematic environmental monitoring. (Microwave (passive), Infrared, Optical) Volcanoes: used to detect volcanic activity even before eruptions and to track and predict the volcanic fallout effects. (Optical, Microwave (active), Infrared, SubM) Shipping: used to track sea ice, ice floes, and ocean storms to steer ships out of harm’s way. (Optical, MW(active)) Long Range Climate Forecasts: study of global atmospheric and oceanic events such as El Niño requires sea surface temperature, ocean winds, ocean wave height, and many other components used in the prediction of long range weather forecasting and climatic trends. (Microwave (active/passive)) In the case of volcanic activity remote sensing is useful in monitoring its gaseous output and direction.

21 Remote Sensing Report ITU-D SG 2 Question 22/2 “Utilization of ICT for disaster management, resources, and active and passive space-based sensing systems as they apply to disaster and emergency relief situations” Work Item 2: Identification and examination of active and passive sensing system applications for their potential effect in enhancing disaster mitigation. Version 1 of the Report is complete and available upon request from the presenter.


23 NASA HQ Spectrum Management Office


25 Global Passive Sensor Systems
AQUARIUS Aquarius is a focused satellite mission to measure global Sea Surface Sainity. Aquarius will resolve missing physical processes that link the water cycle, the climate, and the ocean. AQUA Aqua, collects information on the Earth’s water cycle. The AMSR-E instrument observes atmospheric, lad, oceanic, and cryospheric parameters, including precipitation, sea surface temperatures, ice concentrations, snow water equivalent, surface wetness, wind speed, atmospheric cloud water, and water vapor. The AMSU instrument is a 15-channel microwave sounder designed primarily to obtain temperature profiles in the upper atmosphere (especially the stratosphere) and to provide a cloud-filtering capability for tropospheric temperature observations. CORIOLIS Coriolis is a 3-year meteorological science mission to demonstrate the viability of using polarimetry to measure ocean surface wind speed and direction from space, and to demonstrate predictions of geomagnetic disturbances through continuous observation of Coronal Mass Ejections. It’s WinSat instrument is a passive polarimetric microwave radiometer developed as a risk reduction item in the development of the planned production Conial Microwave Imager Sounder. DMSP The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) monitors the meteorological, oceanographic, and solar-terrestrial physics environments. The SSM/I instrument is a seven-channel, four frequency, linearly-polarize, passive microwave radiometric system whose data is sued to obtain synoptic maps of critical atmospheric, oceanographic and selected land parameters on a global scale. The SSM/T instrument is a five channel, total power microwave radiometer designed to provide global monitoring of the concentration of water vapor in the atmosphere under all sky conditions.

26 Global Passive Sensor Systems
GCOM JAXA’s Global Change Observation Missions (GCOM) will carry the AMSR2 instrument which is an upgraded version of the AMSR-E instrument on NASA’s AQUA mission. JASON Jason-1 is the first satellite in a series designed to ensure continued observation of the oceans for several decades. The JASON-1 Microwave Radiometer (JMR) is a passive sensor which acquires measurements via three separate frequency channels to determine the path delay of the altimeter’s radar signal due to atmospheric water vapor. MEGHA-TROPIQUE Megha-Tropique is designed to investigate the contribution of the water cycle to climate dynamics specifically in the tropical regions. Its Microwave Analysis and Detection of Rain and Atmospheric Structures (MADRAS) passive sensor measures cloud, precipitation and upper atmospheric ice parameters. METEOR-M-1 The overall objective of the Meteor-M-1 mission are to provide operational meteorological services. The objective of MTVZA is to monitor ocean and land surfaces as well as global atmospheric parameters such as temperature and water vapor profiles and to obtain sea surface wind profiles. METOP MetOp promises to provide outstanding data sets to advance the filed of meteorology, which will ultimately improve the accuracy of weather forecasting and our understanding of climate change. AMSU-A and AMSU-B passively measure+C17 scene radiance which is used in conjunction with an infrared sounder to calculate the global atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles.

27 Global Passive Sensor Systems
NOAA (=GOES) The NOAA satellites, more commonly known as the geostationary operational environmental satellites (GOES), are used for short-range warning and “nowcasting” and use a form of the AMSU sensor found on NASA’s AQUA satellite. NPP & NPOES National Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) and its Preparatory Project (NPP) collects and distributes remotely-sensed land, ocean, and atmospheric data to the meteorological and global climate change communities. The Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) passively collects atmospheric data to permit the calculation of temperature and moisture profiles at high (~daily) temporal resolution. OKEAN-1 The OKEAN series of satellites provide oceanagraphic monitoring including measurements of arctic ice. Sentinel-3 ESA’s Sentinel-3 satellite will be dedicated to providing operational oceanographic services. SMOS ESA’s Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission has been designed to observe soil moisture over the Earth’s landmasses and salinity over the oceans. TRMM The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is a mission designed to monitor and study tropical rainfall. The TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) is a passive microwave sensor designed to provide quantitative rainfall information over a wide swath under the TRMM satellite.

28 Capabilities of Space-Based Sensing
Societal Benefit Three: Understanding … climate variability and change.

29 Capabilities of Space-Based Sensing
Societal Benefit Eight: Improving… terrestrial, coastal, and marine ecosystems..

30 Capabilities of Space-Based Sensing
Societal Benefit Eight: Improving… terrestrial, coastal, and marine ecosystems..

31 Capabilities of Space-Based Sensing
Societal Benefit Three: Understanding … climate variability and change.

32 Capabilities of Space-Based Sensing
Societal Benefit One: Reducing loss of life and property … from disasters.. Prediction

33 Capabilities of Space-Based Sensing
Societal Benefit One: Reducing loss of life and property … from disasters.. Prediction

34 Capabilities of Space-Based Sensing
Societal Benefit One: Reducing loss of life and property … from disasters.. Prediction, Disaster Event Assessment, Monitoring

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