Presentation on theme: "EESS (PASSIVE): IMPACT OF INTERFERENCE EXAMINED THROUGH AGENDA ITEMS 1"— Presentation transcript:
1EESS (PASSIVE): IMPACT OF INTERFERENCE EXAMINED THROUGH AGENDA ITEMS 1 EESS (PASSIVE): IMPACT OF INTERFERENCE EXAMINED THROUGH AGENDA ITEMS 1.2 AND 1.20 OF ITU-R WRC-07Jean PLACNES, Toulouse, France
2Summary Introduction to the passive bands under examination for agendas 1.2 and 1.20Description of the agenda itemsProposed methods, future work
3Review of the passive bands under examination for agendas 1.2 and 1.20 The Earth Exploration Satellite Service (EESS) (passive): name used by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) for passive microwave remote sensing of the Earth, operates passive sensors that are designed to receive and to measure natural emissions produced by the Earth’s surface and its atmosphere. The frequency and strength of these natural emissions characterize the type and status of many important geophysical, which describe the status of the Earth/Atmosphere/Oceans System: Earth surface parameters such as soil moisture, sea surface temperature, ocean wind stress, ice extension and age, snow cover; Three-dimensional atmospheric parameters (low, medium, and upper atmosphere) such as temperature profiles, water vapour content.Microwave observations at frequencies below 100 GHz enable studies of the Earth’s surface and its atmosphere from space-borne instruments even in the presence of clouds, because clouds are almost transparent at these frequencies.« All-weather" observing capability in spaceborne observations : repetitive global coverage mandatory for meteorological, climatological, and environmental monitoring and surveying.
4Review of the passive bands under examination for agendas 1.2 and 1.20
5Objective of the passive bands: Sensitivity of brightness temperature to geophysical parameters over ocean surface
6Objective of the passive bands: Sensitivity of brightness temperature to geophysical parameters over land surface
7Characteristics of the passive bands: technical(1/2) Increase of the noise in passive bands: particular concern to highly sensitive passive service receivers that measure very low energy levels for purposes such as weather prediction and scientific research.Passive services usually have instrumentation that is significantly more sensitive than that used by other radiocommunication services.Operations of the radio astronomy service (RAS), Earth exploration-satellite service (EESS) (passive) and space research service (SRS) (passive): measurement of naturally-occurring radiations, of very low power levels. Contain essential information on the physical process under investigation.
8Characteristics of the passive bands: technical(2/2) The relevant frequency bands are mainly determined by fixed physical properties (e.g. molecular resonance) that cannot be changed. Those properties support scientific activities including weather forecasting, as well as water and climate modelling. These frequency bands are, therefore, an important natural resource. Even low levels of interference received at the input of the passive sensors may have a degrading effect on passive service band usage.EESS (passive) monitors the Earth and its atmosphere worldwide. Corrupted measurements from one or more areas may affect the ability to make reliable weather forecasts for the entire world, which may have significant economic and public safety impact.
9Characteristics of the passive bands: regulatory Two kinds of passive bandsP= primary exclusive « All emissions are prohibited in the following bands … »The passive sensors are unable to discriminate between these natural radiations and man-made radiations. Article 5.340 of the RR enables the passive services to deploy and operate their systemsp = primary passive bands shared with other active services, in general terrestrial services (FS, MS), not space services (MSS, FSS)
10Objective of the passive bands MHz: salinity (ocean), soil moisture (ground) MHz: rain, snow, ice, sea state, ocean wind GHz: total content of water vapour GHz: the lowest cumulated effects due to oxygen and water vapour in the vicinity of the 50 GHz band. Optimum window channel to see the Earth’s surface: reference for the other channels.36-37 GHz: cloud liquid water, vegetation structure, surface roughness GHz: temperature profile
11OXYGEN BANDS AT GHzTwo atmospheric gases , CO2 and O2, are playing a predominant role, because their concentration and pressure in the atmosphere are almost constant and known all around the globe.It is therefore possible to retrieve atmospheric temperature profiles from radiometric measurements at various frequencies in the appropriate absorption bands (typically around 15mm for CO2, and around 57GHz for O2).Vertical atmospheric sounding from space, the radiometer measures at various frequencies the total contribution of the atmosphere from the surface to the top.Each layer (characterized by its altitude) radiates energy proportionally to its local temperature and absorption ratio. Integration of the radiative transfer equation along the path from earth's surface to the satellite reflects this mechanism, and results in a weighting function which describes the relative contribution of each atmospheric layer, depending on its altitude.
12Absorption spectrum along a vertical path around 60 GHz
13Objective of the passive bands: ITU-R SA. Recommendations SA Performance criteriaSA Permissible interference criteria levels for frequency bands P and p P MHz: -174 dBW, 27 MHz, 99.9% p, P MHz:-156,-166 dBW, 100 MHz, 99.9% P GHz: -166 dBW, 200 MHz, 99.99% P GHz: -166 dBW, 200 MHz, 99.99%36-37p GHz: -166 dBW, 100 MHz, 99.9% P GHz: -166 dBW, 200 MHz, 99.99%
14Objective of the passive bands: Data availability Data availability is the percentage of area or time for which accurate data is available for a specified sensor measurement area or sensor measurement time.For a 99.99% data availability, the measurement area is a square on the Earth of 2,000,000 km2, unless otherwise justified.For a 99.9% data availability, the measurement area is a square on the Earth of 10,000,000 km2 unless otherwise justified.For a 99% data availability the measurement time is 24 hours, unless otherwise justified.
15Agenda item 1.2 of WRC-07to invite ITU-R to conduct sharing analyses between the EESS (passive) and the SRS (passive) on one hand and the fixed and mobile services on the other hand in the band GHz to determine appropriate sharing criteriato invite ITU‑R to conduct sharing studies between the passive services and the fixed and mobile services in the band 36-37 GHz in order to define appropriate sharing criteria
16Agenda item 1.2 of WRC-07For the bands GHz and GHz, the corresponding radiometers are all conical scan (rotating).
17Agenda item 1.2 of WRC-07For both bands GHz and GHz, dynamic simulations are conducted for specific passive sensors (AMSR-E, AMSR, CMIS, MEGHA-TROPIQUES) and for typical deployments of terrestrial systems.Example of a dynamic simulation
18Agenda item 1.2 of WRC-07The received power are compared to the thresholds contained in Recommendation SA according to a cumulative corresponding % of 0.1 for a limited area of km2Proposed methodology in the Conference preparatory text: development of sharing criteria based on single entry emission limits to be included in a footnote of Article 5 of the Radio Regulations. Those limits are suggested to be non-retroactive for terrestrial active systems brought into use before WRC-07.
19Agenda item 1.20 of WRC-07to consider the results of studies, and proposal for regulatory measures, if appropriate, regarding the protection of the Earth exploration-satellite service (passive) from unwanted emissions of active services in accordance with Resolution 738 (WRC-03)
21Agenda item 1.20 of WRC-07: unwanted emission problem The boundary between the out-of-band and spurious domains occurs at frequencies that are indicated in Figure 1: in general, the boundary, on either side of the centre frequency of the emission, occurs at a separation of 250% of the necessary bandwidth, or at 2.5 BN.
22SATELLITES FOR THE BAND 1400-1427 MHZ ESA, CNES are jointly developing an interferometric radiometer at L band, named SMOS, for a launch planned in This mission aims at retrieving soil moisture and sea surface salinity.SMOS is based on an innovative concept as it images at each integration time a large scene (typically 1000 x 1000 km) with various incidence angles at ground level (ranging from 0 to 55°). SMOS uses interferometric techniques in order to improve spatial resolution: SMOS will use a fixed array of small antennas instead of large scanning antennasNASA/JPL is currently developing two instruments for measuring Soil Moisture and Sea Salinity (the HYDROS and AQUARIUS). For the HYDROS project, the antenna is an offset fed parabolic
24Agenda item 1.20 of WRC-07: representation of unwanted emission spectra Use of RR No. 1.153 the unwanted emission power in the passive band to be no greater than 0.5% of the total mean power of the emission (23 dB attenuation).Recommendation ITU-R SM.1541 provides a worst-case analysis in which the OOB emissions from the active service are overstated.Usage of more realistic methodologiesModulation filtering: DVB-S standard (40 dB attenuation) or usage of more traditional waveforms (20 dB attenuation) such asPost-modulation filtering in most cases: between 25 and 40 dB attenuationTotal expected attenuation (depending on bandwidth of the active service) within the adjacent passive band: between 23 and 80 dB.
25Agenda item 1.20 of WRC-07: dynamic simulations, methodologies Like agenda item 1.2, dynamic simulations are conducted in a co-frequency mode.How much is the interference threshold exceeded according to ITU-R Recommendations?The bandwidth scaling factor compares the necessary bandwidth Bn of the active service to the EESS (passive) bandwidth Bp.Attenuation provided by Recommendation ITU-R SM.1541 or other modulation/ post-modulation filtering (see before).
26Method to solve the agenda item 1.20 of WRC-07 Proposed methodology in the Conference preparatory text: development of a single entry emission limit for each corresponding active service within the EESS (passive) band to be included in a footnote of Article 5 of the Radio Regulations. Those limits are suggested to be non-retroactive for active systems brought into use before WRC-07.
27Agenda item 1.20 of WRC-07: future work Refinement of compatibility analysis to establish the list of the proposed limits (still two ITU-R meetings).One question is: examine the potential impact of interference to remote sensing. Two options.Limits in the RR in accordance with the results of the aggregate simulations: worldwide protection.If those limits are higher than those expected or if another method is retained which provides less protection, what are the consequences from a meteorological point of view: total loss of pixels, total corrupted data? Scientific rationale is needed in this area as a future work.