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Measuring and Reducing the Standardization Gap Dr. Laura DeNardis, Yale Law School Nadi, Fiji, 17 September 2009.

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Presentation on theme: "Measuring and Reducing the Standardization Gap Dr. Laura DeNardis, Yale Law School Nadi, Fiji, 17 September 2009."— Presentation transcript:

1 Measuring and Reducing the Standardization Gap Dr. Laura DeNardis, Yale Law School Nadi, Fiji, 17 September 2009

2 Presentation Agenda Nadi, Fiji, 17 September 2009 2 Introduce project on building standards capacity in the developing world Present case studies of national standards capability Describe the primary standards gaps confronting developing countries Propose best practices for national standards capability

3 Research Project Building Standards Capacity in the Developing World Nadi, Fiji, 17 September 2009 3 Phase I: Variables and Questionnaire Select assessment variables and develop the Tool for Assessing Standards Capability (TASC) Phase II: Assessing National Standards Capacity Use questionnaire responses to identify gaps and present national case studies Phase III: Recommending Best Practices Recommend best practices for national standardization capability

4 Nadi, Fiji,17 September 2009 4 Questionnaire Tool for Assessing Standards Capability Some Parameters Qualitative and Quantitative Regional and International Standards Standards Development, Adoption, Regulation, and Education Scope Limited to ICT Standards Scope Not Limited to ITU Standards

5 Assessment Includes Four Broad Categories Nadi, Fiji,17 September 2009 5 Standards Development Capacity Standardization Human Resources Government Standards Policy National Standards Use and Adoption

6 Standards Development Capacity Nadi, Fiji, 16-17 September 2009 6 Existence of a national ICT standards body and/or standardization committee Participation in international ICT standards development processes (e.g. ITU, ISO, IEEE, IETF, W3C) Participation in regional ICT standards development processesPrivate industry involvement in ICT standards development Adequacy of technical infrastructure to participate in ICT standards development Number of domestic standards/year; patent applications/year, and number of ICT R&D organizations in country

7 Standardization Human Resources Nadi, Fiji, 16-17 September 2009 7 ICT standards courses/curricula in higher educationAvailability of government-sponsored standards trainingOther ICT standards body training in country in past yearICT standards conferences held in country in past yearAccess to electronic training courses and materials Number of individuals engaged in domestic standardization; number of standards experts.

8 Government Standards Policy Nadi, Fiji, 16-17 September 2009 8 Existence of national procedures for enacting standards by government or standardization organization Existence of a national ICT standards agency, department, or advisory council Existence of a national ICT standards strategy Government laws, regulations and policies on ICT standards Government funding and investment in ICT standardization

9 National Standards Use and Adoption Nadi, Fiji, 16-17 September 2009 9 Government interoperability framework or ICT standards procurement policy Adequacy of technical infrastructure for accessing standards for those involved in implementing standards National use of ITU Recommendations, either in product procurement or development Increasing development of technology products and market share based on international ICT standards

10 Additional Questions Nadi, Fiji, 16-17 September 2009 10 Who are the key standards stakeholders in your country? What could private industry do to improve national standards capability? What could international standards-setting institutions do to better facilitate your nations international standards participation? What could the national government do to improve national standards capability?

11 Country Case Studies Nadi, Fiji, 16-17 September 2009 11 China Mongolia Lebanon Mali Thailand

12 Mongolia Standards Policy and Strategy ICT standards policy and strategy is developed by the ICTPA of Mongolia (Information, Communications, Technology and Post Authority) Government Standardization Agency Mongolian Agency for Standardization and Metrology (MASM) Government regulatory agency responsible for coordinating and managing standardization Reports to Deputy Prime Minister's office MASM Council made up of government officials, academics, research scientists, industry, and NGOs The MASMs 13 th Technical Committee is for ICT Nadi, Fiji, 16-17 September 2009 12

13 Mongolia " The aim of MASM in standardization is to contribute to the development of the Mongolian society, economy, industry and trade by establishing standards on the basis of mutual understanding and voluntary agreement between parties in governmental authorities, industry and business, with regard to consumers' rights, and in continuously developing standardization activities aligned to the market system." Nadi, Fiji, 16-17 September 2009 13 Mongolian Agency for Standardization and Metrology

14 Mongolia Mongolian Agency for Standardization and Metrology Main functions Standardization (approves and publishes all Mongolian standards) Certification Establishment of national measurement standards Legal metrology Accreditation Training and consulting International cooperation (and represents Mongolia in international standardization) 5 departments; 2 offices 120 staff members Local centers for standardization/metrology in 21 provinces Nadi, Fiji, 16-17 September 2009 14

15 Mongolia MASM information about standards and standards organizations http://www.estandard.mn / Nadi, Fiji, 16-17 September 2009 15

16 Mongolia Laws Governing National Standards Development, Adoption, and Promotion The development, application and promotion of national standards are set out in the Mongolian law on "Standardization and Conformity Assessment" Adopted in 2003 Defines legal grounds for standardization and conformity assessment Regulates relations between the government, citizens, business entities and organizations involved in standardization Nadi, Fiji, 16-17 September 2009 16 The purpose of standardization is to protect public interest, human health, the environment and security of the nation and enhance the compatibility of products..

17 Mongolia Country Self-Assessment on Standardization Some Strengths Strong national standards body Strong Private industry involvement in standards development Increasing number of national standards, usually based on international standards Mongolian law on Standardization and Conformity Assessment Some Opportunities Inadequate technical infrastructure for broader public involvement Not extensive educational opportunities in standardization International standards bodies can increase standards training and seminars More government funding of ICT standards development and processing Nadi, Fiji, 16-17 September 2009 17

18 China Nadi, Fiji, 16-17 September 2009 18 Standardization Administration of China (SAC) Standards organization, authorized by the State Council of China, responsible for management, supervision, and overall coordination of standardization in China China Communications Standards Association (CCSA) Established in 2002 Membership: corporations, universities, and other societies Conducts standardization activities under the guidance of the Ministry of Information Industry and other authorities Promulgate laws, regulations and policies on standardization Propose standards R&D projects; conduct compliance testing and interoperability testing Promote standards implementation through consultation/training Domestic and international exchange cooperation in ICT standards Undertake work related to standardization commissioned by the authority, members of CCSA or other organizations.

19 China Standardization Human Resources Nadi, Fiji, 16-17 September 2009 19 Thousands of individuals in standards development Primarily from industry, research, government, and academia Involved in regional ICT standards development processes Work on standards development in ITU, ISO, IEEE, IETF, W3C, and other bodies. Standards training Few standards courses in higher education Some government ICT standards training Many standards conferences held in country (e.g. ITU meetings and workshops) CCSA provides electronic training materials

20 China Country Self-Assessment on Standardization Some Strengths Strong national standards body (CCSA) Thousands of standards experts Significant participation in international ICT standards development Multi-stakeholder participation (government, industry, academia) Extensive regional ICT standards development National standards laws and national standards strategy Nadi, Fiji, 16-17 September 2009 20

21 China Country Self-Assessment on Standardization Some Opportunities Private industry should further increase involvement in standards development and adoption in products and should work with government to establish standards capability International institutions like the ITU should encourage greater developing country involvement in standards development (provide education, hold ITU meetings in developing countries, engage experts from developing countries to work for ITU Secretariat or SGs) Government is expected to establish more national standards policies and increase funds to support standards development and adoption Nadi, Fiji, 16-17 September 2009 21

22 Thailand Country Self-Assessment on Standardization Nadi, Fiji, 16-17 September 2009 22 Some Strengths Use of ITU recommendations National standards agencies in information technology and telecommunications Some participation in regional and international ICT standards development processes Some Opportunities Need greater technical infrastructure to participate in ICT standards development and adoption Limited number of standards education and training opportunities beyond ITU programs Opportunities for ICT standards conferences in country

23 Lebanon Country Self-Assessment on Standardization Nadi, Fiji, 16-17 September 2009 23 Some Strengths Existence of a national standards body Participation in international standards development Education about standards, including in higher education courses Some Opportunities Need for standards awareness training Opportunity for greater government standards funding Need for an overall assessment of standards landscape

24 Mali Country Self-Assessment on Standardization Nadi, Fiji, 16-17 September 2009 24 Some Strengths Access to electronic training courses and materials Some ICT standards information in higher education Existence of a national ICT standards agency Some Opportunities No national standards body or committee Private industry involvement in ICT standards development Few standards experts in country No government standards budget

25 Primary Standards Gaps Part 1 Government Understanding of Standards Importance Public officials, industry leadership, and other stakeholders lack an understanding of the critical role of standards for innovation policy and economic efficiency Funding Inadequate funding of government standards agencies, personnel, national standards bodies, workshop attendance Human Resources Insufficient number of standards experts in government, industry, and academia Nadi, Fiji, 16-17 September 2009 25

26 Primary Standards Gaps Part 2 Private Industry Involvement Relatively less private industry participation and lower adoption rate of standards in ICT products International Participation Less involvement in international standards development processes Education Insufficient number of conferences, government training workshops, and standards courses in higher education Technical Infrastructure Inadequate technical infrastructures for those involved in implementing standards as well as for the public Nadi, Fiji, 16-17 September 2009 26

27 National Standards Capability Scale 27 Level 1: Low Standards Capability Level 2: Basic Standards Capability Level 3: Intermediate Standards Capability Level 4: Advanced Standards Capability National Standards Strategy Regional and International Participation in Standards Development Adoption of Standards in Products and Services Minimal Standards Capability other than Use of Products Based on Standards

28 Recommendations for Maximizing National Standards Capacity National ICT Standards StrategyNational Standards Advisory CouncilNational Standards BodyInternational Standards ParticipationRegional Collaboration National Framework for Standards Adoption and Use Standards Education Strategy 28

29 Recommended Best Practices National ICT Standards Strategy Conduct a national inventory of what is currently in place in terms of policies, standards, agencies, and education Articulate a statement about the national importance of standards as a critical ingredient to enabling economic innovation and global access to knowledge Allocate a standards budget for federal involvement in standardization, for standards education and events, and for any subsidization of private industry participation in international and domestic standardization involvement Describe government incentives for companies and other entities to adopt standards within products and services (e.g. advantages in procurement, tax breaks) Lay out the roles and responsibilities of national standards institutions, entities, and agencies Nadi, Fiji, 16-17 September 2009 29

30 Recommended Best Practices Nadi, Fiji, 16-17 September 2009 30 National Standards Advisory Council High-level standards advisory council of experts from industry, academia, and non-governmental organizations to advise government on federal standards strategy National Standards Body Multi-stakeholder standards body made up of private industry, government, academia, and civil society Recommend policies and regulations on national standardization Develop national standards Select international standards Promote the adoption of national standards Publish national standards on web site Provide strategy for the ICT infrastructure and tools for improving national standards capacity

31 Recommended Best Practices Nadi, Fiji, 16-17 September 2009 31 National Framework for Standards Adoption and Use A blueprint for the adoption and use of standards within government ICT infrastructures and more generally within the country International Standards Participation ITU sector members or associates Active participation in ITU study groups and workshops, including contributing standards Hosting standards workshop or event in country Leadership positions in ITU study groups and governance structures Strategic proposals for ITU study questions and work programs Participation in other ICT standards organizations (e.g. ISO, IEEE, IETF, W3C)

32 Recommended Best Practices Nadi, Fiji, 16-17 September 2009 32 Regional Collaboration Participation in regional ICT standards development processes Regional relationships among national standards bodies, including implementation advice, training, joint participation in international standardization Particularly important for small and least developed countries Standards Education Strategy Take advantage of already available training courses and materials from the ITU Government-sponsored ICT standards training Host ICT standards conferences and workshops

33 laura.denardis@yale.edu Nadi, Fiji, 16-17 September 2009 33


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