2Job Position Job Specification Job Description Management must decide how to divide the activities of the organization among a specified number of personnel to ensure the success of the company. This process is more complex than it might at first seem. HRM functions serve to facilitate the process of designing, implementing, managing, and evaluating the success of this division of labor.HRM professionals engage in a number of activities that contribute to management efforts to divide work effectively and efficiently. These include recruitment, selection, training and development, performance appraisal, and compensation management. To understand how HRM functions relate to these activities, it is necessary to define key terms:Job. A job is a group of related activities and dutiesPosition. A position consists of the different duties and responsibilities performed by only one employee.Job Requirements. Job requirements are the different duties, tasks, and responsibilities that make up a job.Job Specification. Job specification is a statement of the needed knowledge, skills, and abilities of the person who is to perform the job.Job Description. A job description is a statement of the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of a job to be performed.Job SpecificationJob Description
3DefinitionsJob - Consists of a group of tasks that must be performed for an organization to achieve its goals.Position - Collection of tasks and responsibilities performed by one person; there is a position for every individual in an organization.Job Specification: Statement of the needed knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) of the person who is to perform the job.Job Description: Statement of the tasks, duties, and responsibilities (TDRs) of a job to be performed.
4Job Analysis Job Analysis: Systematic process of obtaining information about the skills, duties, and knowledge required for performing jobs in an organization.HR managers use the information to develop job descriptions and job specifications that are the basis for recruitment, training, employee performance appraisal and career development.The ultimate purpose of job analysis is to improve organizational performance and productivity.
5Job Analysis: A Basic Human Resource Management Tool TasksResponsibilitiesDutiesHuman Resource PlanningRecruitmentSelectionTraining and DevelopmentPerformance AppraisalCompensation and BenefitsSafety and HealthEmployee and Labor RelationsLegal ConsiderationsJob Analysis for TeamsJob DescriptionsJob AnalysisJob SpecificationsKnowledgeSkillsAbilities
6Reasons For Conducting Job Analysis Staffing : would be disorganized if recruiter did not know qualifications needed for job.Training and Development : if specification lists a particular knowledge, skill, or ability, and the person filling the position does not possess all the necessary qualifications, training and/or development is needed.Compensation and Benefits: value of job must be known before dollar value can be placed on it.Safety and Health : helps identify safety and health considerations.
7Summary of Types of Data Collected Through Job Analysis Work Activities – work activities and processes; activity records ; procedures used; personal responsibility.Personal requirements for the job – personal characteristics such as personality and interests; education and training required; work experience.Machines, tools, equipment, and work aids used.
8Conducting Job Analysis The people who participate in job analysis should include, at a minimum:1. The employee.2. The employee’s immediate supervisor.
9Performing Job Analysis Step 1 : Select jobs to study.Step 2 : Determine information to collect: Tasks, responsibilities, skill requirements, etc.Step 3 : Identify sources of data: Employees, supervisors/managers.Step 4: Methods of data collection:InterviewsQuestionnairesObservationDiaries and Records
10Performing Job Analysis Step 5: Evaluate and validate data collection:Other employeesSupervisors/managersStep 6: Write job analysis report.
11Popular Approaches to Job Analysis Position Analysis QuestionnaireFunctional Job AnalysisComputerized Job AnalysisCritical Incident Method
12Popular Approaches to Job Analysis 1. Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ model) :is a structured questionnaire of job analysis to measure job characteristics and relate them to human characteristics.it consists of 195 job elements that describe common human work behaviors.
13Popular Approaches to Job Analysis 2. Critical Incident Method:Situation analysis technique in which actions or behavior of an employee (during, for example, a customer service event) is recorded and examined to ascertain the actual requirements of a successful operation.a method for improving an employee's performance by writing down and examining examples of what they did particularly well or badly and how it affected their work.
14Popular Approaches to Job Analysis 3. Functional Job Analysis (FJA):Quantitative approach to job analysis that uses a collected list of the various functions or work activities that can make up any job.FJA breaks down job roles into seven areas: things, data, worker instructions, reasoning, people, maths and language.Analysis of worker actions within these areas plays a key part of the Functional Job Analysis process.
15Job Descriptions Job Title Job Identification Essential Functions 2. Statement.3. Essential Functions.4. Specifications.Job Description1. XXX2. XXX3. XXX4. XXXJob IdentificationA job description is a statement of the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of a job to be performed. Job descriptions are important to both employees and employers. For employees, the job description can be used to help them to learn their job duties and understand the results they are expected to achieve. For employers, written job descriptions can serve to minimize the misunderstandings that occur between managers and subordinates. Key elements of job descriptions include:Job Title. Selection of a job title is important for several reasons:Psychological. The job title provides status to the employee.Indication of duties. The job title helps describe what the employee does.Level in hierarchy. The job title should indicate the relative level occupied by its holder in the organization.Job Identification Section. This usually follows the job title and indicates the departmental location of the job, the person to whom the job holder reports, and other pertinent information.Essential Functions Section. This is a statement of job duties and is typically arranged in order of importance, indicating the weight or value of each duty. It is also important that the job description enumerate and explain the essential functions (the mental and physical skills and abilities) required to do the job successfully. Managers who write job descriptions in terms of essential functions reduce the risk of discriminating on the basis of a disability.Job Specifications Section. This section describes the personal qualifications a person must possess to perform the duties and responsibilities contained in a job description. Skills relevant to a job include education or experience, specialized training, personal traits or abilities, and manual dexterities. Physical demands refer to how much walking, standing, reaching, lifting, or talking must be done on the job.Essential FunctionsJob Specifications
16Key Elements of a Job Description 1. Job Title:Indicates job duties and organizational level.2. Job Identification:Distinguishes job from all other jobs.3. Essential Functions (Job Duties):Indicate responsibilities entailed and results to be. accomplished4. Job Specifications:Basic skills required to perform the job and physical demands of the job.
17Problems with Job Descriptions If poorly written, they provide little guidance to the jobholder.They are not always updated as job duties or specifications change.They may break up the law by containing. specifications not related to job success.They can limit the scope of activities of the jobholder, reducing organizational flexibility.
18Job Design Job Design: Job Enrichment: An result of job analysis that improves jobs through technological and human considerations in order to enhance organization efficiency and employee job satisfaction.Job Enrichment:Enhancing a job by adding more meaningful tasks and duties to make the work more rewarding or satisfying.Providing opportunities for achievement, recognition, growth, responsibility, and performance.
19Job Enrichment Factors Increasing the level of difficulty and responsibility of the job.Allowing employees to retain more authority and control over work outcomes.Providing unit or individual job performance reports directly to employees.Adding new tasks to the job that require training and growth.Assigning individuals specific tasks, thus enabling them to become experts.