Presentation on theme: "Investment Framework on Clean Energy & Development CDM DNA Forum Addis Abeba; 4-6 October 2007 Dr. Yogesh Vyas Lead Environmentalist African Development."— Presentation transcript:
Investment Framework on Clean Energy & Development CDM DNA Forum Addis Abeba; 4-6 October 2007 Dr. Yogesh Vyas Lead Environmentalist African Development Bank
Slide 2 AfDB Clean Energy For Development Investment Framework 1. Climate Change Impacts 2. G8 request to MDBs 3. MDB Clean Energy Investment Framework (CEIF) 4. Energy & Development nexus 5. AfDB Strategy on CEIF 6. AfDB CDM Facility
Slide 3 1. Climate Change effects and impacts 1990 CO 2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and land-use change Africa is not a major contributor to GHG emissions. Largest share of Africas contribution is from land use change and not from energy consumption
Slide 6 1. Climate Change effects and impacts More severe droughts Desertification Changing eco systems Reduced crop yields Floodings and storms Increased vector diseases Rising sea level Etc.
Slide 7 2.G8 request to MDBs G8 Gleneagles Communiqué (July 2005) Focus on Africa and on Climate Change Secure, reliable and affordable energy sources are fundamental to economic stability and development Action has to be taken now to slow, stop and reverse greenhouse gas emissions promote energy efficiency conservation of energy improvement of policy-, regulatory- and financing- frameworks accelerated deployment of cleaner technologies
Slide 8 2.G8 request to MDBs World Bank and RDBs requested to develop a clean energy investment framework to: increase the volume of investments on renewable energy and energy efficiency assist regional member countries to identify less greenhouse gas intensive growth options support private sector to develop and finance cost-effective projects on energy efficiency and low-carbon energy sources
Slide 9 2.G8 request to MDBs Timeframe: July 2005: request by G8 to MDBs November 2005: meeting with finance ministers (London) April 2006: World Bank to report at IMF Spring Meeting 3 rd / 4 th quarter: RDBs to present IF strategies / action plans to their Boards G8 summit 2007 (Germany): report progress G8 summit 2008 (Japan): report outcomes
Slide 10 3.AfDB Clean Energy For Development Investment Framework 3 Pillars: Increase Energy Access in Sub- Saharan Africa Transition to Low Carbon Economy Adaptation to Climate Change
Slide 11 Energy in Africa Gas Flaring in Gulf of Guinea
Slide 12 Energy in Africa Africa has 13% of global population but consumes 5% of global energy and 3% of global electricity Only 23% of population in SSA and 91% in North Africa has access to electricity yet world average is 73% Lowest energy consumption per capita of 0.7 toe compared to world average of 1.6 toe Traditional biomass (wood fuel and charcoal) contributes to over 82% of energy used in SSA-less South Africa Between 2000 and 2050, absolute number of people depending on biomass expected to rise from 583 to 823 million
Slide 13 Energy in Africa Abundant resources available (hydro, oil, natural gas, biomass) but not developed Unevenly distributed resources yet poor interstate energy trade. (Oil and Natural gas are in North and West Africa and Coal in Southern Africa) Energy fuel/source reservesconsumption / year Reserves / consumption Oil (in Mtoe)930034727 years Natural Gas (in trillion m 3 ) 9.90.1471 years Coal (in Mt)61700231266 years
Slide 14 Energy and development nexus Energy is central to all developmental interventions Energy is a pre-requisite for poverty alleviation and attainment of the MDGs The poor are forced to pay a higher price for their energy. The price is paid in form of: Human time and labour Economic cost Health costs (mainly indoor air pollution), and Social and gender impact of energy services.
Slide 15 4. Clean Energy Investment Framework Two pronged approach to Climate Change: Clean energy and low-carbon economy Focus on cleaner utilisation of fossil fuels Increased used of renewables Attention to increasing access to energy Adaptation to climate change Climate proofing of investments Integration of adaptation into project cycle
Slide 16 4. Clean Energy Investment Framework Major energy challenges : strengthening energy security for macroeconomic stability, improving energy services for economic growth and better quality of life, and reducing environmental and human health threats from energy production and use. Low carbon drive must not have additional cost on the poor Shared but differentiated responsibilities
Slide 17 4. Clean Energy Investment Framework Strategies clean energy Clean energy for economic growth and sustainable development Low-cost and high-impact solutions Project Development Fund to assist the development of clean energy projects Changes in national energy fiscal and regulatory policies
Slide 18 4. Clean Energy Investment Framework Adaptation challenges: Human-induced change: combustion of fossil fuels & land management practices Major challenges to Africa The poor are most vulnerable, having the least means to adapt Ensure long-term adaptation strategies compatible with short term impacts
Slide 19 4. Clean Energy Investment Framework Adaptation strategies: Integrating adaptation in PRSPs, Country Strategy Papers and project cycle Disaster preparedness improvement through proactive actions – early warning systems Development of tools and checklists Research and Development
Slide 20 4. Clean Energy Investment Framework Investment needs are huge $ 300 billion per year to meet rising energy demands in developing countries $ 60 billion / year additionally for a low-carbon option $ 40 billion / year as cost of adaptation Public and private resources need to be mobilised New financial instruments needed
Slide 21 Pillar 1: Energy Access - AfDB Priorities Enabling environment for maximising private participation Mobilisation of financing and private participation Electricity for the MDGs Energy access for rural development Energy for urban development Renewable energy and energy efficiency Transportation sector fuel efficiency and emissions; and Facilitating countries access to CDM
Slide 22 Pillar 2 : Clean Energy and RE/EE, AfDB Priorities >50MW: Hydropower, Geothermal power, Co- generation, Windpower; Biofuel production. <50MW: Promote renewables aimed at income generating activities in the agro/forest industrial sector such as co-generation and small hydro. <5MW: Solar water heaters, windpumps and solar PVs use in remote rural dispensaries, schools, commercial wildlife and coastal tourism-linked enterprises. < 1kW (household level):Improved biofuel cookstoves in countries where charcoal is a major fuel and indoor air pollution benefits.
Slide 23 The Private Sector Department of the AfDB focuses mainly to develop (a) the wind energy area (b) the small size hydropower (c) bio-fuel, (d) Geothermal, and (e) Co-generation The Middelgrund wind farm – Copenhagen - Denmark 30 MW hydropower - Tunisia
Slide 24 The Current ADB Interventions in promoting the use of Renewable Energy Morocco: Solar/Gas Thermal Power Station (250 MW, 30 MW Solar) (EUR 200 Mio) Egypt: Solar/Gas Thermal Power Station (120 to 150 MW)
Slide 25 The Current ADB Investments in of Renewable Energy Madagascar: Small Hydro 15 MW – Euro14 M Uganda: Bujagali Hydro 250 MW – Euro120 M
Cogeneration and Small-hydro Projects in the Sugar and Tea Industry in East and Southern Africa
Slide 27 Small Hydro for Tea Industry in East Africa UNEP/GEF/AFDB small hydropower initiative for the tea industry in Eastern and Southern Africa countries (Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, Burundi, Malawi, Mozambique and Zambia). East African Tea Trade Association (EATTA) is the executing agency. Key objectives : - Reduce energy cost in the tea industry - Increase reliability of power supply - Increase power supply for rural electrification - Encourage development of self sustaining small hydro industry in the region - Reduce greenhouse gas emission by replacing use of diesel run backup generators in the tea factories Project expected to install 10 MW of small hydropower within 4 years and leverage over 82 MW in the long-term For more information, visit - http://greeningtea.unep.org
Slide 28 Small Hydro in Tea Industry project - Planned installations 4 year project period Beyond 4 years 10 MW additional installed capacity of small hydro promotion projects 82+ MW additional small hydro capacity capacity
Slide 29 Cogen for Africa Project Project funded by GEF, UNEP and AfDB are co-implementing agencies, AFREPREN/FWD is executing agency. Covers 7 countries: Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Ethiopia, Malawi, Swaziland and Sudan. Modeled on success of Mauritius cogen program which now accounts for close to 40% of national power supply. Objectives Promote increased investment in efficient cogeneration systems in eastern and southern Africa. For more information, visit - http://cogen.unep.org
Slide 30 Cogen for Africa project - Planned installations 6 year project period Beyond 6 years 40 MW additional installed capacity of cogeneration promotion projects 20 MW pipeline projects 200+ MW additional cogeneration capacity
Slide 31 COFAMOSA Ethanol Project Under the proposed COFAMOSA Irrigation Project, the Government of Mozambique intends to develop an area of 29,000 ha for irrigated land under sugar cane for sugar and ethanol production. The goal of the project is to reduce poverty levels through increased exports of sugar and ethanol from Mozambique to the region and beyond. Based on the preliminary studies, the project aims to: develop 29,000 ha of irrigated land in possibly 3 phases, over a period of ten years (first and second phase 10,000 ha each and the third phase of 9,000 ha) re-settle over 500 farmers in the project area make use of already existing investment in Corumana Dam and available good irrigation soils; create 18,000 jobs (70%) of economically active people in the area); and make permanent impact in districts of Moamba and Magude and the overall Mozambican national economy. Currently the Bank is funding, through the African Water Facility a consultancy srevice to undertake an integrated feasibility study for the envisaged project. The Study will commence early next year
Slide 34 Types of Carbon Project Eligible for CDM Hydroelectric power offsetting the need for coal- or gas-fired generation Extending grid to reach customers currently using diesel or kerosene Reducing CO 2 and possibly methane by generating energy and bio- fuels from sugar industry by-products -- bagasse and molasses Replacing firewood/kerosene/cowdung with biogas from livestock and human wastes Extracting methane from landfills or avoiding its generation trough composting organic waste in urban dumpsites Extracting methane from disposal of sewage sludge Capturing No 2, a powerful greenhouse gas, from fertilizer production Sequestering CO 2 by tree planting, small plantations, land restoration (limited capacity to buy though)
Slide 35 ADB CDM Facility (1) ADB intends to establish a CDM facility Objectives: Integrate climate change in Bank operations Help remove reg. bottlenecks to clean energy and scale up investment in modern technologies: Suppressed grid energy demand and Off-grid energy access Modern waste management Afforestation and reforestation projects Build carbon capacities in public and private sectors Pioneer innovative approaches that combine multiple stream of revenues from carbon offsets, micro credit, weather insurance, etc
Slide 36 ADB CDM Activities technical assistance for identification and design of CDM-eligible projects, preparation of PDD; development of new methodologies for programmatic or bundling of CDM opportunities for small-scale regional projects; technical studies to identify interested countries range of prospective projects and programs eligible
Slide 37 ADB CDM Activities (cont) policy assistance to address regulatory barriers to the development and execution of CDM projects; capacity-building and awareness raising by organising training programs and information dissemination; and strengthening national designated authorities (DNA). AfDB Carbon facility would be announced formally at the 13 th UNFCCC CC in Bali, Dec 2007
Slide 38 Pillar 3: Adaptation: AfDB Priorities Promote development and use of climate risk assessment and management methods to minimize climate change and variability risks Application of climate risk screening tools to development programs and investment projects Support mainstreaming of climate issues into key regional, national, local and sectoral planning, policies and decision making processes,(e.g PRSPs, etc) Plan to introduce AfDB Policy on Climate Risk Management & Adaptation
Slide 39 Climate Information for Development in Africa Objective: Improve the availability and use of climate information and services in support of sustainable development and achievement of the MDGs. Raising Policy awareness of politicians, planners and the public for broad ownership, support and commitment to adaptation to climate variability and change. Climate Risk Management for strategic MDGs development planning, sectoral management, livelihood strategies and disaster risk reduction. Climate Services for the use of MDGs decision-makers in government, the private sector and civil society. Observations, data management and infrastructure upgrading to provide essential data for climate services, risk management and policy development. The results are to be achieved in part by drawing on, and strengthening the capacity of existing climate institutions in Africa.
Slide 40 Examples of climate risk management operations (3) African Development Bank: Malawi, agriculture Climate Adaptation for Rural Livelihoods and Agriculture (CARLA) US$ 3.3 million added to US$ 24 million baseline
Slide 41 CARLA: Managing climate risk to sectoral investments in Malawi ADB Smallholder Crop Production and Marketing Project (SCPMP) Irrigation development Farmer support programme Recurrent floods and droughts are affecting investments, and reducing development outcomes.
Slide 42 CARLA objectives strengthen the climate resilience of baseline investments and their outcomes while at the same time enhancing broader climate risk management in relation to agriculture and food security in Malawi, including integration in strategic and operational planning in the agriculture sector.
Slide 43 CARLA components COMPONENT 1 – INVESTMENTS, e.g.: Crop diversification, Adjusting timing of farm operations Changes in tillage practices Food reserves and storage Irrigation and efficient water use COMPONENT 2 – EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS COMPONENT 3 – ENABLING ENVIRONMENT Policy, legislative, and institutional frameworks Capacity building of key institutions Targeted knowledge and monitoring systems Multi-stakeholder dialogues
Slide 44 Thank you for your attention Yogesh Vyas African Development Bank Y.Vyas@afdb.org (216) 71 10 21 78 Y.Vyas@afdb.org