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CV Mohan and Eduardo M. Leaño Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific Bangkok, Thailand OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama.

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Presentation on theme: "CV Mohan and Eduardo M. Leaño Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific Bangkok, Thailand OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama."— Presentation transcript:

1 CV Mohan and Eduardo M. Leaño Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific Bangkok, Thailand OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

2 Aquaculture in Asia-Pacific (AP) Aquatic animal health in AP AP regional health program Regional issues and concerns Conclusions and way forward OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

3 Global fish production 145 mmt in 2009 Aquaculture fastest growing food producing sector (8-10% growth) 3% for live stock and 1.6% for capture fisheries Aquaculture now accounts to almost 50% of worlds food fish OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

4 Fish consumption has been on the rise A-P accounts for nearly 70% of global consumption Per caput A-P: 43 kg/year Global: 22 kg/year Based on current consumption By 2050: An extra 30 million tonnes needed Where does this need come from? AQUACULTURE is the answer OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

5 Top aquaculture producer in the world In 2008, almost 90% of world aquaculture production. Asia-Pacific: 46,687,046 T (88.8%) Americas: 2,405,166 T (4.6%) Europe: 2,341,339 T (4.5%) Oceania: 172,214 T (0.3%) Source: FAO, 2010 OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

6 A-P dominated aquaculture globally YearGlobal (t)A-P (t) ,961,61111,939,706 (85.5%) ,261,73931,075,412 (90.7%) ,190,02959,568,049 (91.4%) OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

7 RankCountryProduction (T)Value (US$1000) 1China32,735,99450,638,540 2India3,478,6905,043,749 3Vietnam2,461,7004,599,850 4Indonesia1,690,1212,813,673 5Thailand1,374,0242,202,075 6Bangladesh1,005,5421,766,182 7Norway843,7303,119,011 8Chile843,1424,502,789 9Philippines741,1421,576,141 10Japan732,3743,104,346 OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama Top aquaculture (aquatic animals) producers in the world in 2008 (FAO, 2010)

8 RankSpeciesProduction (T) Value (x1000 US$) 1Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) 3,782,2814,766,195 2Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) 3,775,2674,797,279 3Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) 2,987,4333,696,415 4Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) 2,334,4323,208,561 5Bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) 2,321,5132,975,412 OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

9 RankSpeciesProduction (T) Value (x1000 US$) 6Catla (Catla catla) 2,281,8383,303,124 7Crucian carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) 1,975,3372,135,857 8Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) 1,456,7217,204,152 9Pangasius catfish (Pangansius/Pangasianodon spp.) 1,388,5462,009,081 10Rohu (Labeo rohita) 1,159,4541,334,193 OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

10 Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) Vol. = 2,259,183 T Val. = ~9 Billion US$ Manila Clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) Vol. = 3,141,851 T Val. = ~3 Billion US$ OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

11 Farmer owned/ leased, operated and managed Indonesia Freshwater ponds: 0.14 ha Thailand Coastal pond: 0.8 ha Freshwater pond: 0.28 ha Vietnam catfish culture >55% under 4 ha But production per ha very high, average t/ha/crop Aquaculture in Asia will remain small-scale Health strategies have to factor this in OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

12 Aquaculture will intensify, diversify, and expand Production of all species groups will be increased New species will appear (exotics, e.g. P.vannamei) All environments will be increasingly utilized Increasing influence of markets, trade and consumption (food safety) More and more resources will be used International trade in live aquatic animals and their products will increase OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

13 Increasing intensification more disease outbreaks and disease emergencies Continued diversification of species Increased risk of introduction and spread of pathogens (Trans-boundary pathogens) Continued diversification of farming systems Potential for spread of pathogens to wider geographical areas Economic and social cost of disease is enormous (e.g. One billion $ annual loss in China) OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

14 Fish Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) koi herpes virus disease (KHVD) Viral nervous necrosis (VNN) Grouper iridoviral disease (GID) OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

15 CountryEUSVHSInfection with KHV Red seabream Iridoviral dis. GIVViral encephalopathy and retinopathy Enteric septicemia of catfish Strep. Infection in tilapia Australia+++ Bangladesh++ Cambodia China PR DPR Korea Hong Kong++++ India+ Indonesia+++ Iran Japan Lao PDR Malaysia++++ Myanmar Nepal+ Pakistan Philippines+ Korea PR+++ Singapore Sri Lanka Thailand++ Vietnam++ Finfish Diseases (2010)

16 Crustaceans White spot disease (WSD) Taura syndrome (TS) Infectious myonecrosis (IMN) White tail disease (WTD) OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

17 CountryTSWSDYHDSpherical Baculovirus IHHNMrNVInfectious myonecrosis MSGSMilky Lobster disease Australia Bangladesh+ Cambodia China PR DPR Korea Hong Kong+ India+ Indonesia++++ Iran Japan Lao PDR Malaysia++ Myanmar+++ Nepal Pakistan Philippines++ Korea PR Singapore Sri Lanka+++ Thailand+++++ Vietnam+++ Crustacean Diseases (2010)

18 Crustaceans Monodon Slow growth syndrome (TGAV/LSV ??) Loose Shell syndrome in P.monodon Abdominal segment deformity syndrome in P.vannamei White faeces syndrome in vannamei and tiger Finfish Edwardsiella tarda in marine species Streptococcus agalactiae major problem in Tilapia culture Streptococcus iniae in marine and also freshwater species Tenacibaculum maritimum in marine species Mollusk Ganglioneuritis in abalone OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

19 Reduce risks of aquatic animal disease impacting on livelihoods of aquaculture farmers, national economies, trade and human health Program in 21 countries coordinated and facilitated by intergovernmental NACA OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

20 1. Regional and international cooperation in aquatic animal health improved 2. Practical national strategies developed, adopted and implemented in member countries 3. Surveillance, reporting and response to disease emergencies in the region improved 4. Harmonized diagnostic procedures and approaches to risk assessment developed in the region 5. Widespread adoption of better aquatic animal health management practices in the region OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

21 Asia Regional Advisory Group (AG) on Aquatic Animal Health 10-member expert group (aquatic health experts, OIE Aquatic Animal Health Standards Commission, FAO, OIE Regional Representation for Asia-Pacific and NACA); Advises member governments of NACA Revises the list of diseases for regional (QAAD) reporting system; NACA facilitating annual Advisory Group meetings since 2002 (AGM9-in Bangkok in November 2010) Reports tabled at the OIE-AAHSC meetings OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

22 EU-ASEM Aquaculture Platform under the EU-FP7 project ( ) Europe-Asia steering group on aquatic animal health established Formal mechanism for utilizing the networks and expertise Resource document of aquatic animal health networks and initiatives in Europe and Asia published e-newsletter and active discussion forums will be established Project facilitated joint research proposals OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

23 Regional resource base identified and operational OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama 3-tier Regional Resource Base Regional Resource Experts (RRE) Regional Resource Centres (RRC) Regional Reference Laboratories (RRL)

24 Asia Regional Technical Guidelines (TG): Global Context. Consistent with FAO code of conduct for responsible fisheries OIE Aquatic Code and Aquatic Manual ICES protocols Adopted by 21 countries in Asia-Pacific Adopted by ASWGFi of the ASEAN Promoting implementation of TG is the main focus of NACAs health program OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

25 Elements in TGProgress made (Number of Countries) goodmoderatelow Disease diagnosis1065 Health certification and quarantine measures1056 Disease zoning3315 Disease surveillance and reporting885 Contingency planning3711 Import risk analysis4413 National strategies and policy frameworks1146 OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

26 SOPs for health certification and quarantine Measures for the Responsible Movement of Live Food Finfish within ASEAN (2007) AADCP-RPS project (NACA, ASEC, AusVet, ASEAN governments) Participated by all 10 ASEAN countries Final draft of SOPs completed in Feb 2007 Has become an ASEAN policy document OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

27 Facilitating research towards improved diagnostics (e.g. use of PCR; histopathology, epidemiology, etc) Inter-calibration of fish health services (e.g. PCR calibration among Aquatic Animal Health Services in India, Indonesia and Vietnam); Capacity building in risk analysis (e.g. APEC-funded project on Import Risk Analysis; ) OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

28 YearThailand (Number of samples tested for WSSV) Myanmar (Number of samples tested for WSSV) Philippines (Number of samples tested) for WSSV) OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

29 ResultInterpretationIndia IIndia IIIndonesia IIndonesia IIVietnam IVietnam II Perfect scoresFine17 (46%)6 (19%)10 (30%)7 (23%)14 (44%)14 (58%) Failed to identify only weak positives Sensitivity not optimized 3 (8%)13 (40%)4 (12%)6 (20%)7 (22%)6 (25%) Failed to identify moderate/severe positives Major sensitivity problem 6 (16%)6 (19%)10 (30%)8 (27%)3 (9%)0 (0%) Failed to identify negatives Contamination problem 9 (24%)2 (6%)4 (12%)4 (13%)3 (10%)1 (4%) Failed to identify both positives and negatives Total system failure 2 (6%)6 (19%)5 (15%)5 (17%)5 (15%)3 (12%) TOTAL responses Non-responses12 (26%)19 (37%)1 (3%)0 (0%)13 (29%)4 (14.3%) OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

30 Utilizing the regional expertise to address disease emergencies Emergency technical mission to Indonesia in 2002, in the wake of KHV outbreaks Emergency technical mission to Iran, in the wake of WSD outbreaks in Busher province in 2005 Emergency technical assistance to Indonesia in 2006, in the wake of IMNV outbreaks Emergency technical assistance to Vietnam in 2007, in the wake of milky lobster disease Initiating emergency assistance to Vietnam in 2011 in the wake of serious shrimp diseases OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

31 NACA/FAO/OIE Quarterly Aquatic Animal Disease (QAAD) Reporting QAAD has been initiated since the 3 rd quarter of 1998; Till date 50 QAAD reports published Recommendation from NACA/OIE Expert Consultation in 1996 ; OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

32 21 Participating Countries Myanmar OIE Global Conference on AAH- Panama

33 List of diseases revised annually by the AG; Includes all OIE listed diseases plus diseases of regional concern. OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

34 Disease reporting by member governments has improved significantly in recent years. Efficient diagnostic techniques are now used to screen and detect many viral and bacterial pathogens of fish and shrimps. * I – observation of animal and the environment; clinical examination; II – parasitology, bacteriology, mycology and histopathology; III – virology, electron microscopy, molecular biology, immunology I II III OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

35 Reports are widely distributed: printed copies and free downloads from NACA website ( QuarterYear Q * Q * Q * Q Mean * Reports made available online in late July (Q1) and late October (Q2) 2010, and early February (Q3) Total number of web downloads of each QAAD reports from OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

36 Disease Year Listed QAADOIE Infection with Koi Herpesvirus Abalone viral mortality White tail disease (MrNV) Necrotising hepatopancreatitis Infectious myonecrosis (IMN) Aquatic animal diseases initially listed in QAAD that have been listed in OIE. (early warning system for emerging diseases) OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

37 Disease Grouper Iridoviral Disease Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy Enteric septicaemia of catfish Infection with Marteilioides chungmuensis Acute viral necrosis (in scallops) Akoya oyster disease Monodon slow growth syndrome (MSGS) Milky hemolypmh disease of spiny lobster Regional Aquatic animal diseases listed in QAAD (2011) OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

38 Benefits: Serves as early warning system for emerging threats; Valuable source of information to support risk analysis; establishment of excellent regional networking in support of disease surveillance and reporting in the region. Serves as guide to participating countries in revising their national list of reportable diseases Very strongly complements and supports the OIE disease reporting systems OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

39 Way Forward: Development of OIE/NACA WAHIS Regional Core is in progress; OIE/NACA WAHIS Regional Core will replace the paper-based QAAD reporting system once it is fully implemented. OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

40 Working with many governments and partners Working on key commodities (shrimp, catfish) Identifying risk factors and developing interventions (e.g. better management practices) Promoting the adoption of BMPs through group/cluster approach Example: 752 clusters with over 16,000 small farmers implementing shrimp BMPs in India OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

41 Scientifically validated BMPs when applied properly by small scale farmers using the cluster/group approach will improve production efficiency reduce costs of production maximize economic returns. Support compliance to stringent food safety, aquatic animal health and market requirements. OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

42 1. Spread of IMN in Indonesia Potential for it to spread to other countries in the region Potential for it to spread to native P.monodon Need for a regional approach to prevent its spread NACA IMN alert messages sent to all CAs IMN information brochure sent to all countries Need for developing a regional contingency plan OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

43 2009: more districts of East Java (Situ, Banyuwangi, Blitar and Malang); Bali (Jembrana); Lampung (Pesawaran and South Lampung Dist.), West Nusa Tenggara (East Lombok) and Central Java (Jepara, Blora, Kendal and Rembang) 2010: more districts of East Java (Bangil, Pasuran and Lamongan); West Nusa Tenggara (West Sumbawa); West Java; Aceh; West Kalimantan; South Kalimantan. Initially reported in Situbondo District, East Java in May 2006 and was contained in this area until Spread of IMNV in Indonesia ( ) OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

44 Available for free download at

45 2. Major shrimp disease outbreak in Vietnam Over 50,000 ha in 7 coastal provinces of Mekong Delta affected Both tiger and white shrimp affected Confirmatory diagnosis still not available National, regional and international efforts are underway to address the situation OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

46 3. Other unconfirmed shrimp disease problems India (both tiger and white shrimp) China (Hainan, Guangxi and Guangdong provinces) Malaysia Both tiger and white shrimp cultured together Need for close monitoring, surveillance and follow up Need for sharing the information OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

47 4. Expansion of P.vannamei farming Introduced to several countries in the region (e.g. China, Thailand, Indonesia, Vietnam, India, Philippines, Malaysia) Limited understanding of the SPF concept Market tool? Health management tool to promote bio-security? Using pond raised brood stock is a major concern Not using the routine PCR seed screening tools while choosing SPF seed is a major worry (this is a very common practice for P.monodon seed selection) OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

48 5. Exotic and native-long term outlook Now in many countries both tiger and white shrimp are cultured in same geographical locations and in some cases as poly-culture Provides excellent opportunities for transfer of pathogens between two species Already the region has TSV and IMNV P.vannamei has brought in lot of economic benefits but is there a time bomb waiting to explode? Occurrence of exotic diseases in resource poor countries could pose significant risk to others OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

49 6. WSD in Brunei First report of WSSV from Brunei in P.stylirostris Achieving fool proof bio-security is very difficult This provided a good example of national efforts in containing the problem Also showed that it is very expensive to implement a stamping out operation Highlights the importance of timely availability of technical and financial resources OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

50 7. Introduction of new stocks of native species Introduction of wild P. monodon broodstock from Africa (Mozambique) and Australia to Asia for setting up domestication programs Need for proper risk analysis Tendency to lower the stringency for import requirements and health inspections as compared to an exotic species OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

51 8. Re-emergence of EUS There is a feeling of complacency in many countries Severity of outbreaks is serious in some of the countries (e.g. India) Huge economic losses in culture systems Also an issue for export of ornamentals to EU OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

52 9. Intensification Mekong striped catfish tonnes/ha/crop in Vietnam System unique to Vietnam and Mekong Delta Catfish in India and Bangladesh tonnes/ha/crop Red Tilapia Series of problems in recent years in Thailand, Indonesia and Vietnam (Streptococcus infection) Limited focus on low value species. Much of the attention is on high value species. This needs to change OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

53 10. Increased focus on molecular diagnostics In the last decade more capacity built in the region for molecular biology and its applications Reduced interest in conventional diagnostics and hence reduced capacity for histopathology, bacteriology, mycology and parasitology Limited capacity for epidemiology and risk analysis Consequence holistic approach in dealing with new disease outbreaks and emerging disease events lacking OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

54 11. Aquaculture Certification Perception concerning Asia Pacific Public institutions not able to enforce full compliance to international mandatory standards (e.g. food safety and animal health) and other voluntary standards (e.g. environment and social) Mushrooming of private standards and third party certification schemes Confusion to small scale primary producers Will they help to improve compliance to animal health standards? Clear need for provision of services to the small scale sector to enhance compliance to both mandatory and voluntary standards OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

55 12. Cooperation between veterinary and fisheries authorities In many of the AP countries, aquatic animal health responsibilities come under the fisheries departments Nomination of OIE aquatic focal points is a significant step forward Need to further strengthen the cooperation Better implement the national strategies Enhance participation of aquatic animal health experts in the OIE standard setting process OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

56 13. National Government Support Compared to livestock, aquatic animal health management receives less attention and priority from governments in AP Hence a strong need to quantify the social and economic cost of aquatic animal diseases Not available for many countries OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

57 Aquaculture will diversify, expand and intensify and disease risk will increase in AP Trade (movement of live animals and their products) will happen and diseases will spread in AP AP should aim to promote responsible aquaculture and responsible trade Having effective national strategies will help to comply with mandatory and voluntary national and international requirements and standards OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

58 NACA endeavors to support governments in Asia Pacific through projects and capacity building activities to strengthen compliance to all standards and requirements including OIE code and standards NACA will continue to cooperate and collaborate with international (e.g. OIE, FAO) and regional (e.g. SEAFDEC, ASEAN, SAARC) organizations and promote implementation of a strong aquatic animal health program in Asia-Pacific. OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

59 Thank you.... Visit us at for more OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

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