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Regional Issues: Asia Pacific

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1 Regional Issues: Asia Pacific
CV Mohan and Eduardo M. Leaño Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific Bangkok, Thailand OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

2 Outline Aquaculture in Asia-Pacific (AP) Aquatic animal health in AP
AP regional health program Regional issues and concerns Conclusions and way forward OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

3 Some Facts Global fish production
145 mmt in 2009 Aquaculture fastest growing food producing sector (8-10% growth) 3% for live stock and 1.6% for capture fisheries Aquaculture now accounts to almost 50% of world’s food fish OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

4 Consumption and Need Fish consumption has been on the rise
A-P accounts for nearly 70% of global consumption Per caput A-P: 43 kg/year Global: 22 kg/year Based on current consumption By 2050: An extra 30 million tonnes needed Where does this “need” come from? AQUACULTURE is the answer OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

5 Asia-Pacific Top aquaculture producer in the world
In 2008, almost 90% of world aquaculture production. Oceania: 172,214 T (0.3%) Americas: 2,405,166 T (4.6%) Europe: 2,341,339 T (4.5%) Asia-Pacific: 46,687,046 T (88.8%) Source: FAO, 2010 OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

6 Dominance of Asia-Pacific
A-P dominated aquaculture globally Year Global (t) A-P (t) 1987 13,961,611 11,939,706 (85.5%) 1997 34,261,739 31,075,412 (90.7%) 2007 65,190,029 59,568,049 (91.4%) Check unit OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

7 Asia-Pacific Top aquaculture (aquatic animals) producers in the world in 2008 (FAO, 2010) Rank Country Production (T) Value (US$1000) 1 China 32,735,994 50,638,540 2 India 3,478,690 5,043,749 3 Vietnam 2,461,700 4,599,850 4 Indonesia 1,690,121 2,813,673 5 Thailand 1,374,024 2,202,075 6 Bangladesh 1,005,542 1,766,182 7 Norway 843,730 3,119,011 8 Chile 843,142 4,502,789 9 Philippines 741,142 1,576,141 10 Japan 732,374 3,104,346 OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

8 Top 10 finfish species that are produced around the world (2008)
Top 10 finfish species that are produced around the world (2008). Source: FAO, 2010 Rank Species Production (T) Value (x1000 US$) 1 Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) 3,782,281 4,766,195 2 Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) 3,775,267 4,797,279 3 Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) 2,987,433 3,696,415 4 Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) 2,334,432 3,208,561 5 Bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) 2,321,513 2,975,412 OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

9 Top 10 finfish species that are produced around the world (2008)
Top 10 finfish species that are produced around the world (2008). Source: FAO, 2010 Rank Species Production (T) Value (x1000 US$) 6 Catla (Catla catla) 2,281,838 3,303,124 7 Crucian carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) 1,975,337 2,135,857 8 Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) 1,456,721 7,204,152 9 Pangasius catfish (Pangansius/Pangasianodon spp.) 1,388,546 2,009,081 10 Rohu (Labeo rohita) 1,159,454 1,334,193 OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

10 (Ruditapes philippinarum) Vol. = 3,141,851 T Val. = ~3 Billion US$
Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) Vol. = 2,259,183 T Val. = ~9 Billion US$ Manila Clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) Vol. = 3,141,851 T Val. = ~3 Billion US$ OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

11 Asian Aquaculture is Small scale
‘Farmer owned/ leased, operated and managed’ Indonesia Freshwater ponds: 0.14 ha Thailand Coastal pond: 0.8 ha Freshwater pond: 0.28 ha Vietnam catfish culture >55% under 4 ha But production per ha very high, average t/ha/crop Aquaculture in Asia will remain small-scale Health strategies have to “factor” this in OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

12 Aquaculture trends in AP
Aquaculture will intensify, diversify, and expand Production of all species groups will be increased New species will appear (exotics, e.g. P.vannamei) All environments will be increasingly utilized Increasing influence of markets, trade and consumption (food safety) More and more resources will be used International trade in live aquatic animals and their products will increase OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

13 Implications Increasing intensification
more disease outbreaks and disease emergencies Continued diversification of species Increased risk of introduction and spread of pathogens (Trans-boundary pathogens) Continued diversification of farming systems Potential for spread of pathogens to wider geographical areas Economic and social cost of disease is enormous (e.g. One billion $ annual loss in China) OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

14 Serious diseases in AP Fish Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS)
koi herpes virus disease (KHVD) Viral nervous necrosis (VNN) Grouper iridoviral disease (GID) OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

15 Finfish Diseases (2010) Country EUS VHS Infection with KHV
Red seabream Iridoviral dis. GIV Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy Enteric septicemia of catfish Strep. Infection in tilapia Australia + Bangladesh Cambodia China PR DPR Korea Hong Kong India Indonesia Iran Japan Lao PDR Malaysia Myanmar Nepal Pakistan Philippines Korea PR Singapore Sri Lanka Thailand Vietnam

16 Serious diseases in AP Crustaceans White spot disease (WSD)
Taura syndrome (TS) Infectious myonecrosis (IMN) White tail disease (WTD) OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

17 Spherical Baculovirus Infectious myonecrosis
Crustacean Diseases (2010) Country TS WSD YHD Spherical Baculovirus IHHN MrNV Infectious myonecrosis MSGS Milky Lobster disease Australia Bangladesh + Cambodia China PR DPR Korea Hong Kong India Indonesia Iran Japan Lao PDR Malaysia Myanmar Nepal Pakistan Philippines Korea PR Singapore Sri Lanka Thailand Vietnam

18 Emerging diseases in AP
Crustaceans Monodon Slow growth syndrome (TGAV/LSV ??) Loose Shell syndrome in P.monodon Abdominal segment deformity syndrome in P.vannamei White faeces syndrome in vannamei and tiger Finfish Edwardsiella tarda in marine species Streptococcus agalactiae major problem in Tilapia culture Streptococcus iniae in marine and also freshwater species Tenacibaculum maritimum in marine species Mollusk Ganglioneuritis in abalone OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

19 Asia Regional Aquatic Animal Health Programme
Reduce risks of aquatic animal disease impacting on livelihoods of aquaculture farmers, national economies, trade and human health Program in 21 countries coordinated and facilitated by intergovernmental NACA OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

20 Outputs ( ) Regional and international cooperation in aquatic animal health improved Practical national strategies developed, adopted and implemented in member countries Surveillance, reporting and response to disease emergencies in the region improved Harmonized diagnostic procedures and approaches to risk assessment developed in the region Widespread adoption of better aquatic animal health management practices in the region OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

21 Regional and international cooperation in aquatic animal health improved
Asia Regional Advisory Group (AG) on Aquatic Animal Health 10-member expert group (aquatic health experts, OIE Aquatic Animal Health Standards Commission, FAO, OIE Regional Representation for Asia-Pacific and NACA); Advises member governments of NACA Revises the list of diseases for regional (QAAD) reporting system; NACA facilitating annual Advisory Group meetings since 2002 (AGM9-in Bangkok in November 2010) Reports tabled at the OIE-AAHSC meetings OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

22 EU-ASEM Aquaculture Platform under the EU-FP7 project (2009-2013)
Regional and international cooperation in aquatic animal health improved EU-ASEM Aquaculture Platform under the EU-FP7 project ( ) Europe-Asia steering group on aquatic animal health established Formal mechanism for utilizing the networks and expertise Resource document of aquatic animal health networks and initiatives in Europe and Asia published e-newsletter and active discussion forums will be established Project facilitated joint research proposals OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

23 3-tier Regional Resource Base
Regional resource base identified and operational 3-tier Regional Resource Base Regional Resource Experts (RRE) Regional Resource Centres (RRC) Regional Reference Laboratories (RRL) OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

24 National strategies developed and implemented in the region
Asia Regional Technical Guidelines (TG): Global Context. Consistent with FAO code of conduct for responsible fisheries OIE Aquatic Code and Aquatic Manual ICES protocols Adopted by 21 countries in Asia-Pacific Adopted by ASWGFi of the ASEAN Promoting implementation of TG is the main focus of NACA’s health program OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

25 Status of National Strategies (2008)
Elements in TG Progress made (Number of Countries) good moderate low Disease diagnosis 10 6 5 Health certification and quarantine measures Disease zoning 3 15 Disease surveillance and reporting 8 Contingency planning 7 11 Import risk analysis 4 13 National strategies and policy frameworks OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

26 Sub-regional agreements implemented
SOPs for health certification and quarantine Measures for the Responsible Movement of Live Food Finfish within ASEAN (2007) AADCP-RPS project (NACA, ASEC, AusVet, ASEAN governments) Participated by all 10 ASEAN countries Final draft of SOPs completed in Feb 2007 Has become an ASEAN policy document OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

27 Harmonized diagnostic procedures and approaches to risk assessment developed in the region
Facilitating research towards improved diagnostics (e.g. use of PCR; histopathology, epidemiology, etc) Inter-calibration of fish health services (e.g. PCR calibration among Aquatic Animal Health Services in India, Indonesia and Vietnam); Capacity building in risk analysis (e.g. APEC-funded project on Import Risk Analysis; ) OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

28 PCR application in national surveillance programs (source=QAAD)
Year Thailand (Number of samples tested for WSSV) Myanmar (Number of samples tested for WSSV) Philippines (Number of samples tested) for WSSV) 2004 14129 150 288 2005 8613 225 118 2006 7380 183 2355 2007 6424 199 1317 2008 3419 157 574 OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

29 Comparison of PCR service providing laboratory performances – India, Indonesia and Vietnam
Result Interpretation India I India II Indonesia I Indonesia II Vietnam I Vietnam II Perfect scores Fine 17 (46%) 6 (19%) 10 (30%) 7 (23%) 14 (44%) 14 (58%) Failed to identify only weak positives Sensitivity not optimized 3 (8%) 13 (40%) 4 (12%) 6 (20%) 7 (22%) 6 (25%) Failed to identify moderate/severe positives Major sensitivity problem 6 (16%) 8 (27%) 3 (9%) 0 (0%) Failed to identify negatives Contamination problem 9 (24%) 2 (6%) 4 (13%) 3 (10%) 1 (4%) Failed to identify both positives and negatives Total system failure 5 (15%) 5 (17%) 3 (12%) TOTAL responses 37 32 33 30 24 Non-responses 12 (26%) 19 (37%) 1 (3%) 13 (29%) 4 (14.3%) OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

30 Surveillance, reporting and response to disease emergencies
Utilizing the regional expertise to address disease emergencies Emergency technical mission to Indonesia in 2002, in the wake of KHV outbreaks Emergency technical mission to Iran, in the wake of WSD outbreaks in Busher province in 2005 Emergency technical assistance to Indonesia in 2006, in the wake of IMNV outbreaks Emergency technical assistance to Vietnam in 2007, in the wake of milky lobster disease Initiating emergency assistance to Vietnam in 2011 in the wake of serious shrimp diseases OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

31 Surveillance, reporting and response to disease emergencies
NACA/FAO/OIE Quarterly Aquatic Animal Disease (QAAD) Reporting QAAD has been initiated since the 3rd quarter of 1998; Till date 50 QAAD reports published Recommendation from NACA/OIE Expert Consultation in 1996; OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

32 21 Participating Countries
Myanmar 21 Participating Countries OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

33 Quarterly Aquatic Animal Disease (QAAD) Reporting (Asia-Pacific)
List of diseases revised annually by the AG; Includes all OIE listed diseases plus diseases of regional concern. OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

34 Quarterly Aquatic Animal Disease (QAAD) Reporting (Asia-Pacific)
Disease reporting by member governments has improved significantly in recent years. Efficient diagnostic techniques are now used to screen and detect many viral and bacterial pathogens of fish and shrimps. 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 I 13 17 7 9 8 4 10 5 II 2 3 6 III 11 12 * I – observation of animal and the environment; clinical examination; II – parasitology, bacteriology, mycology and histopathology; III – virology, electron microscopy, molecular biology, immunology. OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

35 Quarterly Aquatic Animal Disease (QAAD) Reporting (Asia-Pacific)
Reports are widely distributed: printed copies and free downloads from NACA website (www.enaca.org) Total number of web downloads of each QAAD reports from Quarter Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Q1 260 231 587 650 1229 914 1149 634 652 622 446* Q2 264 201 554 550 950 1098 1321 613 658 687 592 289* Q3 268 265 223 582 665 1132 795 1065 591 686 600 172* Q4 238 512 212 659 824 681 1023 51 721 484 342 Mean 253 364 292 631 992 872 1140 590 629 589 539 302 * Reports made available online in late July (Q1) and late October (Q2) 2010, and early February (Q3) 2011. OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

36 Quarterly Aquatic Animal Disease (QAAD) Reporting (Asia-Pacific)
Aquatic animal diseases initially listed in QAAD that have been listed in OIE. (early warning system for emerging diseases) Disease Year Listed QAAD OIE Infection with Koi Herpesvirus 2004 2007 Abalone viral mortality 2005 White tail disease (MrNV) 2008 Necrotising hepatopancreatitis 2010 Infectious myonecrosis (IMN) 2006 2009 OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

37 Quarterly Aquatic Animal Disease (QAAD) Reporting (Asia-Pacific)
Regional Aquatic animal diseases listed in QAAD (2011) Disease Grouper Iridoviral Disease Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy Enteric septicaemia of catfish Infection with Marteilioides chungmuensis Acute viral necrosis (in scallops) Akoya oyster disease Monodon slow growth syndrome (MSGS) Milky hemolypmh disease of spiny lobster OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

38 Quarterly Aquatic Animal Disease (QAAD) Reporting (Asia-Pacific)
Benefits: Serves as early warning system for emerging threats; Valuable source of information to support risk analysis; establishment of excellent regional networking in support of disease surveillance and reporting in the region. Serves as guide to participating countries in revising their national list of reportable diseases Very strongly complements and supports the OIE disease reporting systems OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

39 Quarterly Aquatic Animal Disease (QAAD) Reporting (Asia-Pacific)
Way Forward: Development of OIE/NACA WAHIS Regional Core is in progress; OIE/NACA WAHIS Regional Core will replace the paper-based QAAD reporting system once it is fully implemented. OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

40 Widespread adoption of better aquatic animal health management practices in the region
Working with many governments and partners Working on key commodities (shrimp, catfish) Identifying risk factors and developing interventions (e.g. better management practices) Promoting the adoption of BMPs through group/cluster approach Example: 752 clusters with over 16,000 small farmers implementing shrimp BMPs in India OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

41 Widespread adoption of better aquatic animal health management practices in the region
Scientifically validated BMPs when applied properly by small scale farmers using the cluster/group approach will improve production efficiency reduce costs of production maximize economic returns. Support compliance to stringent food safety, aquatic animal health and market requirements. OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

42 Emerging Concerns in AP
1. Spread of IMN in Indonesia Potential for it to spread to other countries in the region Potential for it to spread to native P.monodon Need for a regional approach to prevent its spread NACA IMN alert messages sent to all CA’s IMN information brochure sent to all countries Need for developing a regional contingency plan OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

43 OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama
Spread of IMNV in Indonesia ( ) Initially reported in Situbondo District, East Java in May 2006 and was contained in this area until 2008. 2009: more districts of East Java (Situ, Banyuwangi, Blitar and Malang); Bali (Jembrana); Lampung (Pesawaran and South Lampung Dist.), West Nusa Tenggara (East Lombok) and Central Java (Jepara, Blora, Kendal and Rembang) 2010: more districts of East Java (Bangil, Pasuran and Lamongan); West Nusa Tenggara (West Sumbawa); West Java; Aceh; West Kalimantan; South Kalimantan. OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

44 Infectious Myonecrosis (IMN)
Available for free download at OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

45 Emerging Concerns in AP
2. Major shrimp disease outbreak in Vietnam Over 50,000 ha in 7 coastal provinces of Mekong Delta affected Both tiger and white shrimp affected Confirmatory diagnosis still not available National, regional and international efforts are underway to address the situation OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

46 Emerging Concerns in AP
3. Other unconfirmed shrimp disease problems India (both tiger and white shrimp) China (Hainan, Guangxi and Guangdong provinces) Malaysia Both tiger and white shrimp cultured together Need for close monitoring, surveillance and follow up Need for sharing the information OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

47 Emerging Concerns in AP
4. Expansion of P.vannamei farming Introduced to several countries in the region (e.g. China, Thailand, Indonesia, Vietnam, India, Philippines, Malaysia) Limited understanding of the SPF concept Market tool? Health management tool to promote bio-security? Using pond raised brood stock is a major concern Not using the routine PCR seed screening tools while choosing SPF seed is a major worry (this is a very common practice for P.monodon seed selection) OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

48 Emerging Concerns in AP
5. Exotic and native-long term outlook Now in many countries both tiger and white shrimp are cultured in same geographical locations and in some cases as poly-culture Provides excellent opportunities for transfer of pathogens between two species Already the region has TSV and IMNV P.vannamei has brought in lot of economic benefits but is there a time bomb waiting to explode? Occurrence of exotic diseases in resource poor countries could pose significant risk to others OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

49 Emerging Concerns in AP
6. WSD in Brunei First report of WSSV from Brunei in P.stylirostris Achieving fool proof bio-security is very difficult This provided a good example of national efforts in containing the problem Also showed that it is very expensive to implement a stamping out operation Highlights the importance of timely availability of technical and financial resources OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

50 Emerging Concerns in AP
7. Introduction of new stocks of native species Introduction of wild P. monodon broodstock from Africa (Mozambique) and Australia to Asia for setting up domestication programs Need for proper risk analysis Tendency to lower the stringency for import requirements and health inspections as compared to an exotic species OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

51 Emerging Concerns in AP
8. Re-emergence of EUS There is a feeling of complacency in many countries Severity of outbreaks is serious in some of the countries (e.g. India) Huge economic losses in culture systems Also an issue for export of ornamentals to EU OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

52 Emerging Concerns in AP
9. Intensification Mekong striped catfish tonnes/ha/crop in Vietnam System unique to Vietnam and Mekong Delta Catfish in India and Bangladesh 30-40 tonnes/ha/crop Red Tilapia Series of problems in recent years in Thailand, Indonesia and Vietnam (Streptococcus infection) Limited focus on low value species. Much of the attention is on high value species. This needs to change OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

53 Emerging Concerns in AP
10. Increased focus on molecular diagnostics In the last decade more capacity built in the region for molecular biology and its applications Reduced interest in conventional diagnostics and hence reduced capacity for histopathology, bacteriology, mycology and parasitology Limited capacity for epidemiology and risk analysis Consequence holistic approach in dealing with new disease outbreaks and emerging disease events lacking OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

54 Emerging Concerns in AP
11. Aquaculture Certification Perception concerning Asia Pacific Public institutions not able to enforce full compliance to international mandatory standards (e.g. food safety and animal health) and other voluntary standards (e.g. environment and social) Mushrooming of private standards and third party certification schemes Confusion to small scale primary producers Will they help to improve compliance to animal health standards? Clear need for provision of services to the small scale sector to enhance compliance to both mandatory and voluntary standards OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

55 Emerging Concerns in AP
12. Cooperation between veterinary and fisheries authorities In many of the AP countries, aquatic animal health responsibilities come under the fisheries departments Nomination of OIE aquatic focal points is a significant step forward Need to further strengthen the cooperation Better implement the national strategies Enhance participation of aquatic animal health experts in the OIE standard setting process OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

56 Emerging Concerns in AP
13. National Government Support Compared to livestock, aquatic animal health management receives less attention and priority from governments in AP Hence a strong need to quantify the social and economic cost of aquatic animal diseases Not available for many countries OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

57 Conclusions Aquaculture will diversify, expand and intensify and disease risk will increase in AP Trade (movement of live animals and their products) will happen and diseases will spread in AP AP should aim to promote responsible aquaculture and responsible trade Having effective national strategies will help to comply with mandatory and voluntary national and international requirements and standards OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

58 Conclusions NACA endeavors to support governments in Asia Pacific through projects and capacity building activities to strengthen compliance to all standards and requirements including OIE code and standards NACA will continue to cooperate and collaborate with international (e.g. OIE, FAO) and regional (e.g. SEAFDEC, ASEAN, SAARC) organizations and promote implementation of a strong aquatic animal health program in Asia-Pacific. OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama

59 Thank you.... Visit us at www.enaca.org for more details
OIE Global Conference on AAH-Panama


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