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Ground Incident Review Featuring a distinguished panel of ground safety experts Transport Canada Safety Management Systems -SMS Information Session YVR.

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Presentation on theme: "Ground Incident Review Featuring a distinguished panel of ground safety experts Transport Canada Safety Management Systems -SMS Information Session YVR."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ground Incident Review Featuring a distinguished panel of ground safety experts Transport Canada Safety Management Systems -SMS Information Session YVR - Nov. 2009

2 Moderator Mr. Gerry Pipe, Mgr. Corporate Safety Air Canada - YYZ Mr. Mark Shankland, Mgr. Acrft/Bgge Srvcs Air Canada - YVR Mr. Warren Maines, GM Servisair - YVR Mr. Steve Sogg Human Factors Consultant Boeing Commercial Aircraft - SEA Mr. Brett Patterson Dir Airside Ops YVR Ground Incident Review

3 Location of AC Jackknife RF Path of Travel Location of main concentration of glycol Path of travel In view of camera Line Key

4 Towbarless Tractor Incident - Background XYZ Airline operates from Terminal C at Any Airport, CDA. The crew consists of two ground support agents from a service provider. The agents are towing a fueled B aircraft from remote parking to their gate for upload. The crew is using a tow barless tractor. This incident is a fictitious mock-up using de-identified material. Names, dates, and conditions have been altered in order to stimulate thinking in a training environment. No connection to an actual incident should be inferred. Location of Incident

5 Towbarless Tractor Incident - Background Date / Time is December 24th at 14:00 Weather is clear, sunny, temperature 1c, wind is westerly at 29 gust to 45 Kmph The agents are proceeding to gate 71. There are several icy patches on the ramp where aircraft have previously de-iced with Water/Glycol This incident is a fictitious mock-up using de-identified material. Names, dates, and conditions have been altered in order to stimulate thinking in a training environment. No connection to an actual incident should be inferred. Any Airport, CDA - Terminals

6 Towbarless Tractor Incident - Background Suddenly, without warning, the tractor jackknifes under the aircraft nose, turning approximately 135 degrees. The crew is shocked and stunned. They called maintenance on radio to report. The mechanic relays to ramp control and company operations. Within minutes, Airport Ops, Airline Ops, Service Provider and Safety Investigators respond. This incident is a fictitious mock-up using de-identified material. Names, dates, and conditions have been altered in order to stimulate thinking in a training environment. No connection to an actual incident should be inferred.

7 Towbarless Tractor Incident - Investigation Mr. Warren Maines, GM Servisair YVR Vendor to XYZ Airlines –Freeze Scene –Disconnect Towbarless Tug 8 to maintenance facility –Tow damaged aircraft to XYZ Airlines MTC Ops for further inspection –Arrange for interview of both agents with XYZ and REDA consultant This incident is a fictitious mock-up using de-identified material. Names, dates, and conditions have been altered in order to stimulate thinking in a training environment. No connection to an actual incident should be inferred.

8 Towbarless Tractor Incident – Investigation Mr. Warren Maines – GM Servisair YVR Interviewed driver and second agent at scene of accident – Driver had more than 7 years experience and worked 1 hour before the accident (shift change at 13:00 ET) – Driver statement: While me and my partner were pulling into Gate 71 with B737 at about 1400, we passed by a patch of glycol on the Taxi -Line. My partner was about to get off the tug, cause we were doing about 5-6 kmph, we loss control of the tug we spun and the side of the AC hitting the cargo door. I did not even apply the brakes the whole time. – Agent 2 had 1-2 years experience and worked 1 hour before the accident (shift change at 13:00 ET) – Agent 2 statement: to whom it may concern, at about 1415 me and Merv were tow a B737 in tug # 8. As we were come into Gate 71, I was about to get out to wing walk when the tug hit a patch of glycol and the tug lost control. The tug was traveling at about 7-9 kmph. This incident is a fictitious mock-up using de-identified material. Names, dates, and conditions have been altered in order to stimulate thinking in a training environment. No connection to an actual incident should be inferred.

9 Towbarless Tractor Incident - Investigation Mr. Mark Shankland Mgr. Acrft/Bgge Srvcs Air Canada Photos and Notes –NLG at max deflection to right –NLG should be aligned perpendicular to yellow shoes in cradle (parallel to tugs lengthwise axis) –Pivoting tractor caused NLG to twist out of cradle This incident is a fictitious mock-up using de-identified material. Names, dates, and conditions have been altered in order to stimulate thinking in a training environment. No connection to an actual incident should be inferred. NLG deflected ~ 45 degrees (red stripe is max deflection angle) Cradle

10 Towbarless Tractor Incident - Investigation Mr. Mark Shankland Mgr. Acrft/Bgge Srvcs Air Canada Photos and Notes –Forward cargo door frame buckled by tractor –Tractor light separated from bracket This incident is a fictitious mock-up using de-identified material. Names, dates, and conditions have been altered in order to stimulate thinking in a training environment. No connection to an actual incident should be inferred. Buckled frame Light Bracket Sheared off

11 Towbarless Tractor Incident - Investigation Mr. Mark Shankland Mgr. Acrft/Bgge Srvcs Air Canada Photos and Notes –Aircraft skin punctured by tractor –Note continuity of contact surfaces (witness marks) on skin from tractor light bracket (previous slide) –Blade antenna struck by tractor This incident is a fictitious mock-up using de-identified material. Names, dates, and conditions have been altered in order to stimulate thinking in a training environment. No connection to an actual incident should be inferred. Antenna Struck and Torn from Mount Witness marks

12 Towbarless Tractor Incident - Investigation Mr. Mark Shankland Mgr. Acrft/Bgge Srvcs Air Canada Photos and Notes –High sun angle from southwest (aircraft left) –Sheen on ramp surface This incident is a fictitious mock-up using de-identified material. Names, dates, and conditions have been altered in order to stimulate thinking in a training environment. No connection to an actual incident should be inferred. Sheen

13 Towbarless Tractor Incident - Investigation Mr. Brett Patterson Dir. Airside Operations YVR –Ensure the Safety of the Scene –Secure Scene Impact on Airport –Info / Data Gathering –Contain Spills –Advise TC of incident –Restore Operations –Interview operator –AVOP enforcement action –Interview Air Navigation Srvcs This incident is a fictitious mock-up using de-identified material. Names, dates, and conditions have been altered in order to stimulate thinking in a training environment. No connection to an actual incident should be inferred.

14 Towbarless Tractor Incident - Investigation Mr. Steve Sogg Consultant Human Factors to XYZ Airlines –Conduct pre Ramp Error Decision Aid (REDA) interview activities Review accident investigation results Identify personnel involved Review procedures Review accident and REDA records for similar events Review training records This incident is a fictitious mock-up using de-identified material. Names, dates, and conditions have been altered in order to stimulate thinking in a training environment. No connection to an actual incident should be inferred.

15 Towbarless Tractor Incident Moderator/Audience Interaction Whats your initial take on this? –Operator human factors? –Environmental conditions? –Airport physical layout, signage, guidelines? –Mechanical failure? –Supervisory human factors? –Sabotage by little green men from outer space? Why do you believe this to be true? This incident is a fictitious mock-up using de-identified material. Names, dates, and conditions have been altered in order to stimulate thinking in a training environment. No connection to an actual incident should be inferred.

16 Towbarless Tractor Incident – Data Analysis Mr. Warren Maines – GM Servisair YVR Findings –Both employees received paid suspension pending investigation Both employees were trained on the equipment approximately 6 months prior to the accident. They also had taken a Mishap Training Course. –This is second similar incident at ABC in one year with towbarless tractors at this airport Last years jackknife incident occurred during wet conditions at a speed of 14 kmph without any abnormal driver control input. Glycol, runway deicing fluid, snow rain and ice are common conditions on airports. We already train to reduce speed. Suggest involve manufacturers engineering team with this review. What steps can taken to reduce loss of vehicle traction? Is there a better tire for conditions specific to this airport, etc? Review manufacture recommendations This incident is a fictitious mock-up using de-identified material. Names, dates, and conditions have been altered in order to stimulate thinking in a training environment. No connection to an actual incident should be inferred.

17 Towbarless Tractor Incident – Data Analysis Mr. Warren Maines – GM Servisair YVR –Non-Volatile Memory extracted from Towbarless Tug 8 –Driver used engine braking to decelerate from 28.4 kmph to less than 12.8 kmph just prior to incident (corresponds to his statement) This incident is a fictitious mock-up using de-identified material. Names, dates, and conditions have been altered in order to stimulate thinking in a training environment. No connection to an actual incident should be inferred.

18 Towbarless Tractor Incident – Data Analysis Mr. Brett Patterson Dir. Airside Ops - YVR Weather Service –Temperature 1c –Wind speed 29 kmph gusts to 45 kmph –Ground Surface/Sub surface temperature –No precipitation This incident is a fictitious mock-up using de-identified material. Names, dates, and conditions have been altered in order to stimulate thinking in a training environment. No connection to an actual incident should be inferred.

19 Towbarless Tractor Incident – Follow-up Mr. Brett Patterson – Dir. Airside Ops YVR During interview with XYZ employee tug driver before issuing citation Employee stated he was tired reporting on shift (up all night with new baby) Employee stated supervisor asked him to hurry to get B737 spotted at gate 71 due to maintenance delay Employee stated he was distracted by sun angle before initiating turn – did not see Glycol sheen Employee stated he had difficulty understanding Agent 2, a new Spanish-speaker who was trying to exit tractor before it had stopped. This was an additional distraction. This incident is a fictitious mock-up using de-identified material. Names, dates, and conditions have been altered in order to stimulate thinking in a training environment. No connection to an actual incident should be inferred.

20 Towbarless Tractor Incident – Data Analysis Mr. Steve Sogg – XYZ Airlines Consultant – REDA – Conduct separate interview of Driver and Agent – Contributing factors InformationEquipment/tools/safety equipment Aircraft Design/ConfigurationJob/Task Knowledge/SkillsIndividual Factors Environment/Facility/RampOrganizational Factors Leadership/SupervisionCommunications – Driver Equipment/tools/safety equipment – Driven too fast in in Glycol contaminated environment Technical skills – Didnt know what to do when jackknife started Task knowledge – Did not understand how much inertia was involved Individual factors – Decreased visual perception due to sun Environment/Facility/Ramp – Glycol on ramp Organizational Factors – Work process/procedures did not define careful speed This incident is a fictitious mock-up using de-identified material. Names, dates, and conditions have been altered in order to stimulate thinking in a training environment. No connection to an actual incident should be inferred.

21 Towbarless Tractor Incident – Data Analysis Mr. Steve Sogg – XYZ Airlines Consultant – REDA Agent Knowledge/Skills – Did not know vendor process requirement to walk when visibility was bad Knowledge/Skills – Could not read procedure due to insufficient English language skills Organizational Factors – Selection process did not sufficiently assess English language (reading) competency Organizational Factor – It is the norm to ride is the tug at that location This incident is a fictitious mock-up using de-identified material. Names, dates, and conditions have been altered in order to stimulate thinking in a training environment. No connection to an actual incident should be inferred.

22 Towbarless Tractor Incident Moderator/Audience Interaction How about the facts brought forward now? –Operator human factors? –Environmental conditions? –Airport physical layout, signage, guidelines? –Mechanical failure? –Supervisory human factors? –Sabotage by little green men from outer space? Do we stop here? This incident is a fictitious mock-up using de-identified material. Names, dates, and conditions have been altered in order to stimulate thinking in a training environment. No connection to an actual incident should be inferred.

23 Towbarless Tractor Incident – Mitigation Mr. Warren Maines – GM Servisair YVR –Company accepted Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP) report from both employees –Board of Inquiry (BOI) corrective action: Company Safety Bulletin and shift relief awareness campaign using de-identified incident photos to emphasize – never egress from a moving vehicle, even at slow speed! Employees are encouraged to report to Shift Supervisor any unusual personal circumstances affecting fitness to work; this could permit temporary re-assignment to non-technical tasks Supervisor training to emphasize adverse effect of suggesting subordinates hasten to accomplish complex tasks Company will investigate the standardization of training materials perhaps with pictorial support for English as Second Language employees. This incident is a fictitious mock-up using de-identified material. Names, dates, and conditions have been altered in order to stimulate thinking in a training environment. No connection to an actual incident should be inferred.

24 Towbarless Tractor Incident – Mitigation Mr. Mark Shankland - Mgr. Acrft & Bgge Srvcs Air Canada –Company restricted the practice of de-icing aircraft in the Romeo Fox Alley within 2 weeks of incident –Field conditions and speed operations are briefed daily. –Further speed restrictions are being considered during contaminated conditions. –The safety department has approached XYZ Aprt Authority with concerns about the paving/sealing conditions around the Terminal B gate and ramp areas. –GSE is investigating tire replacement on Supertugs to achieve greater friction in snow, ice, sleet, freezing rain and rain conditions –Change to Ground Support Manual: While driving in near-freezing conditions, especially in strong or gusting winds, be mindful of forces on the airplane which, combined with towing speed and inertia, may generate a skid…particularly on sloped and/or contaminated surfaces. This incident is a fictitious mock-up using de-identified material. Names, dates, and conditions have been altered in order to stimulate thinking in a training environment. No connection to an actual incident should be inferred.

25 Towbarless Tractor Incident – Mitigation Mr. Brett Patterson – Dir. Airside Ops YVR Brief incident at monthly Airport ASOC Meeting Review Ramp Ops Committee –Liaison with Airport Maintenance and Planning Departments Post airport taxiway lights and signage around contaminated areas to warn ground handlers Post contaminated taxiway/ramp info on tower Voice Advsry to alert pilots Bulletins to Ramp Offices This incident is a fictitious mock-up using de-identified material. Names, dates, and conditions have been altered in order to stimulate thinking in a training environment. No connection to an actual incident should be inferred.

26 Towbarless Tractor Incident – Mitigation Mr. Steve Sogg – XYZ Human Factors Consultant Recommendations: Expand towing training to include emergency conditions. Emphasize in training and crew meetings the effects of heavy aircraft on towing. Provide and require the use of sunglasses in bright sunlight conditions. Address the issue of Glycol on the ramp. Revise selection policy and process to assess reading competency. Emphasize to first level management the requirement for agents to walk, not ride on tractors in poor visibility conditions. Revise towing procedure to specifically define maximum speed in poor visibility conditions. This incident is a fictitious mock-up using de-identified material. Names, dates, and conditions have been altered in order to stimulate thinking in a training environment. No connection to an actual incident should be inferred.

27 Towbarless Tractor Incident Moderator/Audience Wrap-up Does it make sense? –Hazard identification –Risk assessment –Development of mitigation strategies –Measurement of effectiveness Is the mere absence of an event a confirmation of mitigation effectiveness? –Why or why not? –Questions? This incident is a fictitious mock-up using de-identified material. Names, dates, and conditions have been altered in order to stimulate thinking in a training environment. No connection to an actual incident should be inferred.


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