Presentation on theme: "Problem Based Learning (PBL) Using Case Studies to Teach Science Jane Indorf, PhD Department of Biology University of Miami."— Presentation transcript:
Problem Based Learning (PBL) Using Case Studies to Teach Science Jane Indorf, PhD Department of Biology University of Miami
PBL: A Cooperative Learning Environment Cooperative Learning = group members work together to accomplish shared goals Instead of: Collaborative Learning Competitive Learning Individualistic Learning
Cooperative Behavior in the Classroom DiscouragesEncourages Eyes on own paperSee what peers are doing No talkingStudents talk among each other Work done individuallyStudents share work with others Student asks teacher for helpStudent asks group mates for help Competition for teacher’s attentionEach student has opportunity to be be spokesperson Competition for extrinsic awards (e.g. grades) Cooperate for both intrinsic and extrinsic awards
5 Elements of Cooperative Learning Positive Interdependence Promotive Interaction Individual and Group Accountability Interpersonal skills Group Processing
1. Positive interdependence must exist among group members “… linking students together so one cannot succeed unless all group members succeed. Group members have to know that they sink or swim together.” (Johnson, Johnson, & Holubec, 1998, p. 4:7). Students need to share resources, fulfill different roles, and complete different tasks to achieve group’s goal.
2. Teacher encourages face-to-face promotive interaction Class culture of encouragement, help, and sharing Explaining and elaborating maximizes student achievement, knowledge retention, and higher level reasoning Personal relationships are built and maintained Group discussion can be “window into students’ minds”.
3. Teacher requires both individual and group accountability Students are assessed individually Guarantees that students take responsibility for their share of the group work. Team members are responsible for work of their teammates. Students hold each other accountable for their share of the work.
4. Students use and learn interpersonal skills Students have to: Help each other to complete the group task Maintain positive working relationships Social Skills: Listening Stating ideas clearly Accepting responsibility Giving constructive criticism Taking turns
5. Teacher uses group processing to improve the group’s future effectiveness Summarizing group members ideas and information Encouraging members to participate in group discussion Checking to ensure that decisions made by the group were supported by all members
What is PBL? Student centered inquiry based learning Case studies are used to motivate students Case study = real world problem or story with dilemma Students find/create solution Group work – investigate and analyze problem Skills developed: Critical thinking, analysis, written & oral communication, logic, decision-making
Teacher’s Role Teacher as mentor, guide Selects or designs case study Asks questions Monitors group progress Debrief and review Authentic assessment … students are asked to perform real-world tasks that demonstrate meaningful application of essential knowledge and skills -- Jon Mueller
Student’s Role Students as investigator Responsibility for their own learning Asks questions Identifies learning issues Questions sources Self reliant learner
A Good Case Study: Controversial Dialogue Interesting characters Dilemma to be solved Contemporary Real Questions with right/wrong answers or open ended questions Learning Objectives
Case Writing Process 1. Identify topic 2. Identify learning objectives 3. Research a “hook”; a current topic of interest, possible scenarios/stories that will cover learning objectives 4. Possible characters 5. Write draft 6. Identify issues likely to arise during discussion 7. Write questions which guide students to the issues and learning objectives 8. Plan how to manage case in classroom 9. Revise
Process of PBL
PBL Process – Part One DataQuestions What do we already know? What can the characters tell us? HypothesisLearning Issues What do you think happened? What do we still need to know?
PBL Process Part Two: Assessment Student participation and contribution to group work Kinds of issues they identify Questions they develop Investigations they propose Where and how they locate resources How students conduct investigations Students’ presentations
Assessment – Student Observation Are students: actively acquiring information about a science topic within this problem space? re-organizing this information? using strategies to select resources beyond text materials? using a problem-oriented approach? (Is there a question for investigation?) collaborating with other individuals in problem posing or problem solving?
Teacher Reflection How well does the activity work as a learning tool with your students? Was the time allotted for exploration adequate? Were the students able to generate questions that they could investigate? Was the case: too vague? too difficult? too long? not challenging enough? other problems?
Classroom facilitation Small group / two roving facilitators
Classroom facilitation Large group / teacher as facilitator
Classroom facilitation Small group / teacher as roving facilitator
Classroom facilitation Small group / student groups self-facilitate / teacher as roving facilitator
Case Studies On the Internet Emory University University at Buffalo University of Delaware Bioquest University of Wisconsin
Keep in Mind while writing a case study for PBL: Learning objectives and outcomes Methods of assessment The level of students’ skills: how much do they know about the topic? Amount of information to include Use real-world problems and issues Use narrative style