Presentation on theme: "Cooperative Learning An Overview. Definition What it IS What it IS NOT Based on theory and work of Johnson and Johnson."— Presentation transcript:
Cooperative Learning An Overview
Definition What it IS What it IS NOT Based on theory and work of Johnson and Johnson
Cooperative Learning is… Applied Social Psychology Intentional structuring of learning goals –to promote Positive Interdependence –Intentional structuring of learning goals so that students are encouraged to engage in Promotive Interaction Promotive Interaction is more likely to occur when there are 5 key elements intentionally structured and monitored throughout the lesson.
Learning Goals can be structured 3 different ways: Cooperatively Competitively Individualistically
Competitive Learning Goals One person can obtain her goal if and only if the other fail to obtain theirs Negative Correlation Among Goal Attainments Negative Interdependence “If I swim, you sink; If you swim I sink.” Individual Goals Comparative (Norm referenced) evaluation Winners are rewarded
Individualistic Learning goals Each person’s goal attainment is unrelated to the goal attainments of others No correlation among goal attainments No Interdependence “We are each in this alone.” Individual Goals Evaluation is criterion referenced and may be limiting. Rewarded for own product.
Cooperative Learning When one person achieves his goal, ALL others achieve their goals Positive correlation among goal attainments Positive Interdependence “We sink or swim together.” Group Goal Evaluation is criterion referenced and encouraging. Rewarded for group product.
Interaction Patterns PROMOTIVE: Encouraging and facilitating each other’s efforts to achieve OPPOSITIONAL: Discouraging and obstructing each other’s efforts to achieve. NO INTERACTION.
Research Findings Research Findings 1.Achievement and retention 2.Critical thinking and higher-level reasoning 3.Differentiated views of others 4.Accurate understanding of others’ perspectives 5.Liking for classmates
Research Findings, cont. Research Findings, cont. 6.Liking for teacher 7.Positive expectations toward future interactions 8.Liking for subject areas 9.Social Skills 10.Psychological health 11.Self-esteem
5 Key Elements of Effective Cooperative Learning Groups Positive Interdependence Individual Accountability Face-To-Face Interaction Direct Instruction of Social Skills Processing
Positive Interdependence Message from teacher Fates are tied together In your interest to help / be helped Encourages helping each other Without Positive Interdependence there may be no motivation to cooperate. One set of answers from the group One worksheet Jigsaw materials (information) One set of materials / tools to share Bonus points Same grade for everyone Different colored pens
Individual Accountability The message the teacher gives to the students that tells them: 1. You must do your fair share of the work. 2.You must master the material being learned. 3.You will be held accountable for your share of the work and mastering the learning. Using signatures Individual Tests Different Colored Pens Spot Checking as Students Work Randomly Calling on Students
Face-To-Face Interaction The message that students: have a group, need to work with their group, need to stay with their group, Work synchronously Sit at round tables so they can easily see and hear one another. Designated areas on the floor (islands) Space between the groups so the teacher can move between groups. “Stay with your group.”
Direct Instruction of Social Skills Intentionally teaching social skills like any other skill. Structure regular opportunities for students to learn, practice and be evaluated on social skills until they become automatic. Establishing a need for the social skill Positively framing rules as skills Include Social Skills in each lesson T-chart (looks like / sounds like) Role Play what “listening” is and is not. Discuss how it feels to be listened to / ignored. Ask students to think of a time when they were listened to. How did it feel?
Processing Intentionally structured time Reflect on how well we worked together / used our social skills (social skills) Reflect on how well we completed our work (academic) Review data, Make a goal for next time Thumbs up or Thumbs down Rate yourself What did someone in your group do / say that let you know you were being listened to? Observer gives data (feedback); Discuss Write an goal for improving / maintaining the high quality of listening for tomorrow’s work. Name 3 things your group did well in working together. Name 1 thing your group could do even better next time.
Cooperative Learning Lesson Plan Components Lesson Objective Group Size Seating Arrangement (face-to-face) Assignment of Roles Materials Social Skills (directly taught) Statement of Task (positive interdependence) Evaluation (individual accountability; include social skills) Processing (reflection, how well we worked together, how well we mastered learning)
Formulating Objectives & Making Decisions Specify Instructional Objectives Decide on Size of Group Assign Students to Groups Arrange the Room Plan Instructional Materials to Promote Interdependence Assign Roles to Ensure Interdependence / Support Learning Social Skills
Monitoring & Processing Monitor Students’ Behavior Provide Task Assistance Intervene to Teach Collaborative Skills Provide Closure to Lesson Evaluate Quality and Quantity of Student’s Learning Assess How Well The Group Functioned Set Goals
WHAT CHILDREN CAN DO TOGETHER TODAY, THEY CAN DO ALONE TOMORROW. –Vygotsky, 1965