2Definition What it IS What it IS NOT Based on theory and work of Johnson and Johnson
3Cooperative Learning is… Applied Social PsychologyIntentional structuring of learning goalsto promote Positive InterdependenceIntentional structuring of learning goals so that students are encouraged to engage in Promotive InteractionPromotive Interaction is more likely to occur when there are 5 key elements intentionally structured and monitored throughout the lesson.
4Learning Goals can be structured 3 different ways: CooperativelyCompetitivelyIndividualistically
5Competitive Learning Goals One person can obtain her goal if and only if the other fail to obtain theirsNegative Correlation Among Goal AttainmentsNegative Interdependence“If I swim, you sink; If you swim I sink.”Individual GoalsComparative (Norm referenced) evaluationWinners are rewarded
6Individualistic Learning goals Each person’s goal attainment is unrelated to the goal attainments of othersNo correlation among goal attainmentsNo Interdependence“We are each in this alone.”Individual GoalsEvaluation is criterion referenced and may be limiting.Rewarded for own product.
7Cooperative LearningWhen one person achieves his goal, ALL others achieve their goalsPositive correlation among goal attainmentsPositive Interdependence“We sink or swim together.”Group GoalEvaluation is criterion referenced and encouraging.Rewarded for group product.
8Interaction PatternsOPPOSITIONAL: Discouraging and obstructing each other’s efforts to achieve.PROMOTIVE: Encouraging and facilitating each other’s efforts to achieveNO INTERACTION.
9Research Findings Achievement and retention Critical thinking and higher-level reasoningDifferentiated views of othersAccurate understanding of others’ perspectivesLiking for classmates
10Research Findings, cont. Liking for teacherPositive expectations toward future interactionsLiking for subject areasSocial SkillsPsychological healthSelf-esteem
115 Key Elements of Effective Cooperative Learning Groups Positive InterdependenceIndividual AccountabilityFace-To-Face InteractionDirect Instruction of Social SkillsProcessing
12Positive Interdependence Message from teacherFates are tied togetherIn your interest to help / be helpedEncourages helping each otherWithout Positive Interdependence there may be no motivation to cooperate.One set of answers from the groupOne worksheetJigsaw materials (information)One set of materials / tools to shareBonus pointsSame grade for everyoneDifferent colored pens
13Individual Accountability The message the teacher gives to the students that tells them:1. You must do your fair share of the work.You must master the material being learned.You will be held accountable for your share of the work and mastering the learning.Using signaturesIndividual TestsDifferent Colored PensSpot Checking as Students WorkRandomly Calling on Students
14Face-To-Face Interaction The message that students:have a group,need to work with their group,need to stay with their group,Work synchronouslySit at round tables so they can easily see and hear one another.Designated areas on the floor (islands)Space between the groups so the teacher can move between groups.“Stay with your group.”
15Direct Instruction of Social Skills Intentionally teaching social skills like any other skill.Structure regular opportunities for students to learn, practice and be evaluated on social skills until they become automatic.Establishing a need for the social skillPositively framing rules as skillsInclude Social Skills in each lessonT-chart (looks like / sounds like)Role Play what “listening” is and is not.Discuss how it feels to be listened to / ignored.Ask students to think of a time when they were listened to. How did it feel?
16Processing Thumbs up or Thumbs down Rate yourself What did someone in your group do / say that let you know you were being listened to?Observer gives data (feedback); DiscussWrite an goal for improving / maintaining the high quality of listening for tomorrow’s work.Name 3 things your group did well in working together.Name 1 thing your group could do even better next time.Intentionally structured timeReflect on how well we worked together / used our social skills (social skills)Reflect on how well we completed our work (academic)Review data,Make a goal for next time
18Cooperative Learning Lesson Plan Components Lesson ObjectiveGroup SizeSeating Arrangement (face-to-face)Assignment of RolesMaterialsSocial Skills (directly taught)Statement of Task (positive interdependence)Evaluation (individual accountability; include social skills)Processing (reflection, how well we worked together, how well we mastered learning)
19Formulating Objectives & Making Decisions Specify Instructional ObjectivesDecide on Size of GroupAssign Students to GroupsArrange the RoomPlan Instructional Materials to Promote InterdependenceAssign Roles to Ensure Interdependence / Support Learning Social Skills
20Structuring Task & Interdependence Explain the Academic TaskStructure Positive Goal InterdependenceStructure Individual AccountabilityStructure Inter-group CooperationExplain Criteria for SuccessSpecify Desired Behaviors
21Monitoring & Processing Monitor Students’ BehaviorProvide Task AssistanceIntervene to Teach Collaborative SkillsProvide Closure to LessonEvaluate Quality and Quantity of Student’s LearningAssess How Well The Group FunctionedSet Goals
22WHAT CHILDREN CAN DO TOGETHER TODAY, THEY CAN DO ALONE TOMORROW. Vygotsky, 1965