Presentation on theme: "The Classification of Plants"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Classification of Plants Plant DiversityThe Classification of Plants
2 PLANT CHARACTERISTICS Slide # 3PLANT CHARACTERISTICSMulticellular eukaryotesPhotosynthetic autotrophs containing chloroplasts.Non-mobile (fixed to one spot)Cell walls made of celluloseResponds to environment and grows through the use of hormones
3 Plants Make the The Move to Land Slide # 4Plants Make the The Move to LandThe ancestors of plants were multicellular green algae. They were completely immersed in water & dissolved minerals.To move onto land, plants had to solve these problems:How to get chemical resources (water, minerals, oxygen, and carbon dioxide) separated into air and soilHow to transport resources within the plant.How to prevent from drying outHow to reproduce without water
4 Some Adaptations (solutions)- Slide # 5Some Adaptations (solutions)-Have body parts extending into both air and soilDevelop a vascular system to transport resources in plant (xylem & phloem)Have a protective layer – cuticle (waxy outer layer) to keep from drying outSpecialized structures for reproduction including spores & seeds that do not dry out
5 Plants are classified based on whether or not they have Slide # 6Plants are classified based on whether or not they haveVascular System (transport)SeedsFlowers (enclosed seeds)
6 Plants Has NO Vascular Tissue Has Vascular Tissue Bryophytes Slide # 7Concept Map: Plants are divided 1st by whether or not they have a vascular system.PlantsHas NO Vascular TissueHas Vascular TissueBryophytesTracheophytes
7 Bryophytes -NONVASCULAR Slide # 8Most primitive plantsFound in moist, shady areas b/c no true rootsNO vascular (transport) systemReproduces using spores5. example: Mosses
8 Typical Moss Plant (most common bryophyte) Slide # 9Spores form inside the capsule.Notice the problem of nutrient separation into air and soil is solved with underground and above ground parts. (Although NO TRUE roots, stems or leaves are present)
9 Tracheophytes -Vascular Plants- Slide # 10Contains two types of specialized vascular tissues for transport within the plant:Xylem- transports H20 up from roots.Phloem- transports food made during photosynthesis and nutrients to where they are needed in the plant.Presence of a vascular system allowed plants to become tall.Has specialized organs: roots, stems, and leaves.
10 Tracheophytes Seeded Seedless Ferns use spores Slide # 11Tracheophytes are divided into two groups by whether or not they reproduce with seeds.TracheophytesSeededSeedlessFerns use spores
11 There are 11,000 species of ferns. Slide # 12The Fern - a seedless vascular plantThere are 11,000 species of ferns.Contain a vascular system.Reproduce using spores, Not seeds.Sori
12 Seed-Bearing Tracheophytes Slide # 13ADVANTAGE: Developed reproductive strategies that do not need water:Seed containsA fully developed embryoFood supply for embryoA water-proof seed coat to keep from drying outSperm transferred in water-proof pollen through pollination by wind or animals.Developed seed-bearing structures: Cones and Flowers
13 Tracheophytes Seeded Seedless The two Seeded Tracheophyte groups are divided by whether or not they have enclosed seeds -protected inside a fruit or if seeds are exposed to the environment.TracheophytesSeededSeedlessFerns use sporesGymnospermsAngiosperms“naked” or exposed seedsFlowers produce fruit w/ enclosed seeds
15 Gymnosperms-Conifers SequoiaSlide # 16Gymnosperms-ConifersMost common gymnosperms are ConifersConifers have leaves called needles or scales (have a reduced surface area and thick waxy coat on the needle to reduce water loss and prevents freezing.)JuniperPine
16 Angiosperms- “enclosed seeds” Slide # 18These are flowering plants the encourage direct and efficient pollen transfer (smell, color and offering nectar)Flowers contain ovaries, which is where eggs/seeds are produced.A fruit is the pollinated ovary containing mature seeds.
17 Fruit can aid in dispersal of seed to reduce competition with parent plant. Slide # 19Winged fruit – glides to new location (maple fruit)Floating fruit – can float to new locations (coconut)Fleshy fruit - sweet bright colored fruit have seeds that survive the digestive system of animals that eat the fruit (apple)Spiny fruit- Velcro like projections attach to the fur of animals (cockleburs)Maple seeds: Winged fruitBurdock: Spiny fruit
19 Fill in Your Flower! stigma anther style stamen carpel filament ovary ovulepetalsepalreceptaclepeduncleFlower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test
20 Pollination is the transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma This is an example of cross-pollination as the pollen travels from one flower to a different flower. This is desirable in plants as it promotes variation.Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test
21 Self-pollination occurs when pollen falls from the anther onto the stigma of the same flower Self-pollination is not desirable as it reduces variationFlower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test
22 Flowers will prevent self-pollination by either having stigma above stamen or… Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test
23 …by having stamen and stigma mature at different times. Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test
24 Once pollination occurs a tube grows from the pollen grain down through the style to the ovule stigmastylecarpelNote: Petals not shown in order to simplify diagramovaryovuleFlower Structure Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination Test
25 Fertilisation occurs when the male gamete fuses with the ovule (the female gamete) Flower Structure Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination Test
26 Angiosperms can be categorized as monocots and dicots.
28 After fertilisation the petals, stamen and sepals fall off. The ovule turns into a seed, the fertilised egg inside develops into an embryo plant.Cotyledon:Food storeTesta:tough seed coatPlumule:Embryo shootMicropyle:Hole made by pollen tubeEmbryoplantRadicle: Embryo rootFlower Structure Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination Test
29 Water leaves the seed, it dehydrates and becomes dormant because metabolic reactions stop. The ovary develops to become a fruit.Fleshy wallof the ovary(yes, you are eating an adapted ovary when youcrunch into an apple!seedFlower Structure Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination Test
30 Quiz Time What did plants have to overcome to live on land? What is the most primitive division of plants because they have no vascular system?What is the most common example in this division and how do they reproduce?Why are mosses so small?What is the division of plants that contain a vascular system?What did a vascular system do for plants size-wise?How are mosses and ferns different?How are mosses and ferns alike?
31 Quiz Time How are Tracheophytes different from bryophytes? How are tracheophytes divided?What are the advantages of seeds over spores?What other advantages did seed-bearing plants have over spore-bearing plants?What are the two divisions of the seed-bearing tracheophytes?
32 Quiz Time What does the term Gymnosperm mean? What are the most common of the Gymnosperms?What is the evolutionary importance of needles?What structures do conifers use to reproduce?Were are seeds located in the cone?Even though wind-dispersal of pollen is inefficient, what did it allow plants to overcome?