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Plant Diversity The Evolution and Classification of Plants.

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Presentation on theme: "Plant Diversity The Evolution and Classification of Plants."— Presentation transcript:

1 Plant Diversity The Evolution and Classification of Plants

2 True or False 1.All plants perform photosynthesis. 2.All plants need water and nutrients. 3.All plants reproduce using flowers. 4.All plants reproduce using seeds. Warm-up: Answer for Each Slide # 2

3 PLANT CHARACTERISTICS 1.Multicellular eukaryotes 2.Photosynthetic autotrophs containing chloroplasts. 3.Non-motile (fixed to one spot) 4.Cell walls made of cellulose 5.Respond to environment and grow by using hormones Slide # 3

4 What Plants Need to Survive 1.Sunlight 2.Gas exchange - System for taking in CO 2 and releasing O 2 3.Water 4.Minerals All are needed so that plants can carry out photosynthesis! Slide # 4

5 Green algae Moss Vascular tissue Seeds Flowers Ferns Gymnosperms Angiosperms Cladogram of Kingdom Plantae Slide # 5

6 The ancestors of plants were multicellular green algae. They were completely immersed in water & dissolved minerals. To move onto land, plants had to solve these problems: 1.How to get chemical resources (water, minerals, oxygen, and carbon dioxide) separated into air and soil 2.How to transport resources within the plant. 3.How to keep from drying out 4.How to reproduce without water Problems with Living on Land Slide # 6

7 SOLUTIONS (ADAPTATIONS) 1.Leaves (CO 2 ) and roots (H 2 O) 2.Develop a vascular system to transport resources in plant 3.Have a protective layer – cuticle (waxy outer layer) to keep from drying out 4.Specialized structures for reproduction including spores & seeds that do not dry out Slide # 7

8 Vascular Tissue 1. Vascular Tissue- hollow tube-like cells that transports materials throughout the plant Xylem- transports H 2 0 up from roots. Phloem- transports food made in photosynthesis to where it is needed in the plant. Slide # 8 Xylem (water) Phloem (food)

9 Bryophytes - NONVASCULAR 1.Live in moist, shady areas 2.NO vascular (transport) system 3.Small size because no vascular tissue 4.No true roots, stems, or leaves 5.Need water for reproduction. 6.Reproduces using spores, -asexual cell that can grow into a new organism. 7.Examples: Moss, Liverworts, & Hornworts Slide # 9 moss liverworts hornworts

10 1.Have vascular tissue. 2.Have true roots, stems & leaves 3.They grow in moist, shady habitats. 4.Have underground stems, roots, & large leaves called fronds. 5.Reproduce using spores, NOT seeds. Ferns - Seedless Vascular Plants There are 11,000 species of ferns. Sori Slide # 10

11 ADVANTAGE: reproduction IS NOT dependent on water: 1.Seed contains a.A fully developed embryo b.Food supply for embryo c.A water-proof seed coat to keep from drying out 2.Sperm transferred in water-proof pollen through pollination by wind or animals. 3.Developed seed-bearing structures: Cones & Flowers Seed Plants Slide # 11 embryo endosperm Seed coat

12 1. Cycad (Sago palm), 2. Ginkgo, 3. Conifer (pine, spruce, firs, cedars, sequoias, redwoods, junipers, yews, & cypress trees) Gymnosperms- “naked seed” Sago PalmGinkgo Slide # 12

13 1.Most common gymnosperms are Conifers 2.Conifers have leaves called needles or scales have a reduced surface area and thick waxy coat on the needle to reduce water loss and prevents freezing. Gymnosperms-Conifers Sequoia Juniper Pine Slide # 13

14 Conifer Reproduction 1. Male cones produce pollen and the female cone produces eggs and seeds. 2. Pollen is inefficiently transferred by the wind. 3. Once mature, the scales on the female cone dry out and open scattering the seeds by the wind. Pollen Pollen Cone Seed Cone Slide # 14

15 Angiosperms- “enclosed seeds” 1. Flowering plants that encourage direct and efficient pollen transfer (smell, color and offering nectar) 2. Pollinators are flying insects, birds, and bats that transfer pollen from flower to flower. 3. Flowers contain ovaries, which is where eggs/seeds are produced. 4. A fruit is the pollinated ovary containing mature seeds. Slide # 15

16 Two Divisions of Angiosperms: Monocots and Dicots Slide # 16

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