11 The Plasma Membrane (or Cell Membrane) The semipermeable membrane that encloses the cytoplasm of a cell.Made up of fatty molecules arranged in a double layerIt is selectively permeable – meaning it lets only SOME substances in or out. It controls what enters and leaves the cell.It has receptor proteins which detect signals from outside the cell
13 The NucleusContains all genetic information for the cell in the form of DNAInside nucleus -instructions contained in the DNA are copied into RNA.Then the RNA leaves the nucleus and brings instructions to the rest of cell for producing proteins
17 Mitochondria (singular “mitochondrion”) Called the “Power Plants” of the cellThey convert organic materials into energy (they make a substance called ATP).Carry out cellular respiration.Sugar + oxygen carbon dioxide + water + energy(ATP)They control the level of water and other materials in the cell.A cell can have hundreds or thousands of mitochondria, which can occupy up to 25% of the cell's cytoplasm.
18 Cellular RespirationMitochondrionSugar + Oxygen Carbon Dioxide +Water + Energy(ATP)Takes place in the mitochondria of cells of both animals and plants.
20 Ribosomes Their function is to assemble proteins (from amino acids) Look like little “dots”. Some on the surface of endoplasmic reticulum and some “free” in the cytoplasmEach cell contains thousands.
24 Endoplasmic Reticulum Connected to the nuclear membrane.A network of tubes.The cell’s transport systemThe “rough type” has ribosomes on its surface.The “smooth type” lacks ribosomes.Help transport proteins to different parts of the cell.
28 VacuoleSacs with a membrane. Used for storage, digestion and waste removal. Contain water solutions. Usually one large central vacuole in plant cells and more than one smaller vacuole in animal cells.
29 Lysosomes lysosome animation Digestive “plant” for proteins, fats and carbohydrates. They fuse with a food vacuole, digest it and carry the wastes to the cell membrane for disposal. Help keep the cell “clean” by destroying used up organelles.
32 CentriolesThere is one pair in each cell. Each centriole is made up of a ring of nine microtubules. During cell division, or mitosis, the centrioles produce spindle fibers which help to pull chromosomes apart.Centrioles are found only in animal cells.
35 Chloroplasts Found in all higher plant cells. They contain chlorophyll, which makes them green.They capture light energy from the sun to carry out photosynthesis in the cell.carbon dioxide + water + energy sugar + oxygenCO2 + H2O + energy C6H12O6 + O2chlorophyllchlorophyll
37 The Cell WallProtects the cell Makes the cell rigid (found only in plants) Lets water and nutrients pass through (porous) Thicker than cell membranes Made up of cellulose and other materials
38 The Differences Between Animal and Plant Cells Animal CellsPlant CellsContain centriolesDon’t contain centriolesDon’t contain chlorplastsContain chloroplastsDo not have a Cell WallHave a Cell WallHave more than one small vacuoleUsually have one large central vacuoleUsually smaller than plant cellsUsually larger than animal cells
39 Summary of Cell Organelles FunctionMitochondriaEnergy center or "powerhouse" of the cell. Turns food into useable energy (ATP)RibosomesMake proteinGolgi ApparatusProcesses, packages and secretes proteinsLysosomeContains digestive enzymes, breaks things downEndoplasmic ReticulumTransport, "intracellular highway"VacuoleStores water or other substancesChloroplastUses sunlight to create food, photosynthesis (only found in plant cells)Cell WallProvides additional support (plant and bacteria cells)Cell membraneGives form to cell and controls materials going into and out of cellNucleusDirect cell activity and forms ribosomesCentriolesOrganize spindle fibers and assist mitosisPlastids (like chloroplasts)Pigment-forming structures providing color.
41 Cilia (singular cilium) Thin, tail-like projections coming from the outer surface of the cell. One type is used for propulsion. Another type used for sensing.Found in protozoa (propulsion) Found in cells lining our trachea (sweep mucus) and ovum (move ovum from ovary to uterus)ciliacilia animations
42 Flagella (singular flagellum) A “whip-like” organelle used to move about. Used by many unicellular organisms mainly. (eg. bacteria)flagella animations