1Emily McIntyre Katie Vivian Michelle Ramalho Where Do We Go From Here? Community Focused Tourism Development And The Possibility for Change In Today’s Tourism IndustryEmily McIntyreKatie VivianMichelle Ramalho
2Agenda Introduction Sustainability and Community Based Tourism Case Study: Operation Wallacea, IndonesiaStakeholder Involvement and ParticipationGroup Activity: Island TourismCollaboration and PartnershipsBenefits & Obstacles of Community Based TourismRecommendations for the FutureConcluding Thoughts
3Introduction:Key Terms Community Based Tourism: ‘Centers on the involvement of the host community in planning and maintaining tourism development in order to create a more sustainable industry’ (Hall, 1996).Community Development: ‘Building active and sustainable communities based on social justice and mutual respect’ (Gilcrest, 2003).
4Sustainability and Community Based Tourism WHO?Local community members, tourism operators and government officialsAll stages of developmentHOW?Empower, educate and ensure equal opportunityWHY?Balance socio-cultural, economic and ecological realmsCritically analyze current tourism trendsDiscussion: What role do you think sustainability plays in local residents’ lives? Consider the following quote “…how can someone whose children are without food be expected to care about elephants?” (Sharpley & Roberts, 2004).
5Case Study: Operation Wallacea, Indonesia Volunteer Tourism is the work of an individual(s) in a destination area during their vacation to accomplish a non-remunerative activity (Singh and Singh, 2004)EducationRadio AnnouncementsWork with Non-profit FORKANIEnvironmental and Cultural preservationInitiatives to spread the income
6Host Attitudinal/Behavioural Responses to Tourist Activity (Bjorklund and Philbrick, 1972)
7Stakeholder Involvement and Participation Community participationLocal controlStakeholder involvementIndigenous systems are often more sustainable (Sharpley and Telfer, 2002)Harmonize with cultural traditionsCommunity cohesion and cooperation
8Group Activity Destination Profile: Small island developing state in the South PacificTourism is a new economic opportunityDiscussion Groups:1. Local community2. Government3. Operators
9Community Conflicts and the Soloman Islands (Sofield, 1996) Adverse socio-cultural impactsIssues over land ownership (traditional vs. modern notions)Resort development on an uninhabited island caused significant problemsProvoked domestic political tensionLoss of Investor confidence
10Collaboration and Partnerships Lack of coordination in developing countriesCollaborative effort is necessary for success in developing tourismPrivate, Public and Government AgenciesCo-management as a solution to share resources (Plummer and Fitzgibbon, 2004)Collaboration under Sustainable Development
11Partnerships (Bramwell and Lane, 2000) Benefits-Range of stakeholders involved for change and improvements -Democracy -Social acceptance -Coordination of policies - Importance of non-economic issues -Pooling of resources -Non-tourism activities may be encouragedBarriers-Limited tradition of stakeholders participating in policy making-Difficult for equal representation -Healthy conflict may be stifled -Collaborative efforts may be under-resourced -May block innovation -Costly & time consuming
12Community Based Tourism ObstaclesSocial Structure:Gender roles, power and politicsPossibilities for diversification:Social, economic and environmentalAdvantagesEmphasis on locality:Participation, control etc.Improvements to:Infrastructure, awareness etc.Discussion: Based on the arguments for both sides of ‘the issues of partnerships and community based tourism’, which elements from each side do you think should be included to ensure effective development’ in host destinations?
13Recommendations for the Future 1) Alternatives & Differentiation in Tourism2) Collaboration and partnerships3) Continual monitoring and management
14Concluding Thought…Based on the issues presented here today, do you think that tourism development has the capacity to change?
15ReferencesBjorklund, E.M. and Philbrick, A.K. (1972). Spatial configurations of mental process. Unpublished paper, Department of Geography, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario.Blackstock, K. (2005). A Critical Look as Community Based Tourism. Community Development Journal, 40 (4),Bramwell, B. and Lane, B. (2000). Tourism Collaboration and Partnerships: Politics, Practice and Sustainability. Great Britain: Biddles Ltd.Manyara, J. & Jones, E. (2007). Community-based Tourism Enterprises development in Kenya: An Exploration of Their Potential as Avenues of Poverty Reduction. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 15 (6),Plummer, R. and Fitzgibbon, J. (2004). Co-Management of Natural Resources: A Proposed Framework. Environmental Management 33 (6),
16References Cont’d.Sharpley, R. and Telfer, D. (2002). Tourism and Development: Concepts and Issues. Clevedon: Channel View Publications.Sharpley, R. and Roberts, L. (2004) Rural tourism – 10 years on. International Journal of Tourism Research 6,Shunnaq, W., Schwab, W. & Reid, M. (2008). Community Development Using a Sustainable Tourism Strategy: A Case Study of the Jordan River Valley Touristway. International Journal of Tourism Research,Singh, S., and Singh, T. V. (2004). Volunteer tourism: New pilgrimages to the Himalayas. In T. V. Singh (Ed.), New horizons of tourism: Strange experiences and stranger practices (pp ). Wallingford, UK: CAB International.Sofield, T. (1996). ‘Anuha Island resort: a case study of failure’, in Butler, R. and Hinch, T. (eds) Tourism and Indigenous People, London: Thomson Learning.Yiping, L. (2004). Exploring Community Tourism in China: The Case of Nanshan Cultural Tourism Zone. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 12 (3),