Presentation on theme: "Where Do We Go From Here? Community Focused Tourism Development And The Possibility for Change In Todays Tourism Industry Emily McIntyre Katie Vivian Michelle."— Presentation transcript:
Where Do We Go From Here? Community Focused Tourism Development And The Possibility for Change In Todays Tourism Industry Emily McIntyre Katie Vivian Michelle Ramalho
Agenda Introduction Sustainability and Community-based Tourism Case Study: Operation Wallacea, Indonesia Stakeholder Involvement and Participation Group Activity Collaboration and Partnerships Benefits & Obstacles of Community-based Tourism Recommendations for the Future Concluding Thoughts
Introduction:Key Terms Community Based Tourism: Centers on the involvement of the host community in planning and maintaining tourism development in order to create a more sustainable industry (Hall, 1996). Community Development: Building active and sustainable communities based on social justice and mutual respect (Gilcrest, 2003).
Sustainability and Community Based Tourism WHO? –Local community members, tourism operators and government officials –All stages of development HOW? –Empower, educate and ensure equal opportunity WHY? –Balance socio-cultural, economic and ecological realms –Critically analyze current tourism trends Discussion: What role do you think sustainability plays in local residents lives? Consider the following quote …how can someone whose children are without food be expected to care about elephants? (Sharpley & Roberts, 2004).
Case Study: Operation Wallacea, Indonesia Volunteer Tourism is the work of an individual(s) in a destination area during their vacation to accomplish a non-remunerative activity (Singh and Singh, 2004) Education Radio Announcements Work with Non-profit FORKANI Environmental and Cultural preservation Initiatives to spread the income
Host Attitudinal/Behavioural Responses to Tourist Activity (Bjorklund and Philbrick, 1972)
Stakeholder Involvement and Participation Local Control All voices should be heard Stakeholders involved in all processes from the beginning Indigenous systems are often more sustainable (Sharpley and Telfer, 2002) Harmonized with cultural traditions Community cohesion and cooperation Source: Brocku.ca/campusministries.com
Group Activity Destination Profile: –Small island developing state in the South Pacific –Tourism has come up as a new possible economic development –As members of this destination you are required to discuss tourism as a development option Groups –1. Local community –2. Government –3. Tourism operators
Community Conflicts in the Soloman Islands
Collaboration and Partnerships Lack of coordination in developing countries Collaborative effort is necessary for success in developing tourism Private, Public and Government Agencies Co-management as a solution to share resources (Plummer and Fitzgibbon, 2004) Collaboration under Sustainable Development
Partnerships (Bramwell and Lane, 2000) Benefits -Range of stakeholders involved for change and improvements -Democracy -Social acceptance -Coordination of policies - Importance of non- economic issues -Pooling of resources -Non-tourism activities may be encouraged Barriers -Limited tradition of stakeholders participating in policy making -Difficult for equal representation -Healthy conflict may be stifled -Collaborative efforts may be under-resourced -May block innovation -Costly & time consuming
Community Based Tourism Advantages Emphasis on locality: –Participation, control etc. Improvements to: –Infrastructure, awareness etc. Obstacles Social Structure: –Gender roles, power and politics Possibilities for diversification: –Social, economic and environmental Discussion: Based on the arguments for both sides of the issues of partnerships and community based tourism, which elements from each side do you think should be included to ensure effective development in host destinations?
Recommendations for the Future 1) Alternatives & Differentiation in Tourism 2) Collaboration and partnerships 3) Continual monitoring, innovation and management
Concluding Thought… Based on the issues presented here today, do you think that tourism development has the capacity to change?
References Bjorklund, E.M. and Philbrick, A.K. (1972). Spatial configurations of mental process. Unpublished paper, Department of Geography, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario. Bramwell, B. and Lane, B. (2000). Tourism Collaboration and Partnerships: Politics, Practice and Sustainability. Great Britain: Biddles Ltd. Plummer, R. and Fitzgibbon, J. (2004). Co-Management of Natural Resources: A Proposed Framework. Environmental Management 33 (6),
References Contd. Sharpley, R. and Telfer, D. (2002). Tourism and Development: Concepts and Issues. Clevedon: Channel View Publications. Sharpley, R. and Roberts, L. (2004) Rural tourism – 10 years on. International Journal of Tourism Research 6, Singh, S., and Singh, T. V. (2004). Volunteer tourism: New pilgrimages to the Himalayas. In T. V. Singh (Ed.), New horizons of tourism: Strange experiences and stranger practices (pp ). Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Sofield, T. (1996). Anuha Island resort: a case study of failure, in Butler, R. and Hinch, T. (eds) Tourism and Indigenous People, London: Thomson Learning.
Thank you Thank you for your time and participation Please provide us with any questions or concerns you may have!