1Emily McIntyre Katie Vivian Michelle Ramalho Where Do We Go From Here? Community Focused Tourism Development And The Possibility for Change In Today’s Tourism IndustryEmily McIntyreKatie VivianMichelle Ramalho
2Agenda Introduction Sustainability and Community-based Tourism Case Study: Operation Wallacea, IndonesiaStakeholder Involvement and ParticipationGroup ActivityCollaboration and PartnershipsBenefits & Obstacles of Community-based TourismRecommendations for the FutureConcluding Thoughts
3Introduction:Key Terms Community Based Tourism: ‘Centers on the involvement of the host community in planning and maintaining tourism development in order to create a more sustainable industry’ (Hall, 1996).Community Development: ‘Building active and sustainable communities based on social justice and mutual respect’ (Gilcrest, 2003).
4Sustainability and Community Based Tourism WHO?Local community members, tourism operators and government officialsAll stages of developmentHOW?Empower, educate and ensure equal opportunityWHY?Balance socio-cultural, economic and ecological realmsCritically analyze current tourism trendsDiscussion: What role do you think sustainability plays in local residents’ lives? Consider the following quote “…how can someone whose children are without food be expected to care about elephants?” (Sharpley & Roberts, 2004).
5Case Study: Operation Wallacea, Indonesia Volunteer Tourism is the work of an individual(s) in a destination area during their vacation to accomplish a non-remunerative activity (Singh and Singh, 2004)EducationRadio AnnouncementsWork with Non-profit FORKANIEnvironmental and Cultural preservationInitiatives to spread the income
6Host Attitudinal/Behavioural Responses to Tourist Activity (Bjorklund and Philbrick, 1972)
7Stakeholder Involvement and Participation Local ControlAll voices should be heardStakeholder’s involved in all processes from the beginningIndigenous systems are often more sustainable (Sharpley and Telfer, 2002)Harmonized with cultural traditionsCommunity cohesion and cooperationSource: Brocku.ca/campusministries.com
8Group Activity Destination Profile: Groups Small island developing state in the South PacificTourism has come up as a new possible economic developmentAs members of this destination you are required to discuss tourism as a development optionGroups1. Local community2. Government3. Tourism operators
10Collaboration and Partnerships Lack of coordination in developing countriesCollaborative effort is necessary for success in developing tourismPrivate, Public and Government AgenciesCo-management as a solution to share resources (Plummer and Fitzgibbon, 2004)Collaboration under Sustainable Development
11Partnerships (Bramwell and Lane, 2000) Benefits-Range of stakeholders involved for change and improvements -Democracy -Social acceptance -Coordination of policies - Importance of non-economic issues -Pooling of resources -Non-tourism activities may be encouragedBarriers-Limited tradition of stakeholders participating in policy making-Difficult for equal representation -Healthy conflict may be stifled -Collaborative efforts may be under-resourced -May block innovation -Costly & time consuming
12Community Based Tourism AdvantagesEmphasis on locality:Participation, control etc.Improvements to:Infrastructure, awareness etc.ObstaclesSocial Structure:Gender roles, power and politicsPossibilities for diversification:Social, economic and environmentalDiscussion: Based on the arguments for both sides of ‘the issues of partnerships and community based tourism’, which elements from each side do you think should be included to ensure effective development’ in host destinations?
13Recommendations for the Future 1) Alternatives & Differentiation in Tourism2) Collaboration and partnerships3) Continual monitoring, innovation and management
14Concluding Thought… Based on the issues presented here today, do you think that tourism development has the capacity to change?
15ReferencesBjorklund, E.M. and Philbrick, A.K. (1972). Spatial configurations of mental process. Unpublished paper, Department of Geography, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario.Bramwell, B. and Lane, B. (2000). Tourism Collaboration and Partnerships: Politics, Practice and Sustainability. Great Britain: Biddles Ltd.Plummer, R. and Fitzgibbon, J. (2004). Co-Management of Natural Resources: A Proposed Framework. Environmental Management 33 (6),
16References Cont’d.Sharpley, R. and Telfer, D. (2002). Tourism and Development: Concepts and Issues. Clevedon: Channel View Publications.Sharpley, R. and Roberts, L. (2004) Rural tourism – 10 years on. International Journal of Tourism Research 6,Singh, S., and Singh, T. V. (2004). Volunteer tourism: New pilgrimages to the Himalayas. In T. V. Singh (Ed.), New horizons of tourism: Strange experiences and stranger practices (pp ). Wallingford, UK: CAB International.Sofield, T. (1996). ‘Anuha Island resort: a case study of failure’, in Butler, R. and Hinch, T. (eds) Tourism and Indigenous People, London: Thomson Learning.
17Thank you Thank you for your time and participation Please provide us with any questions or concerns you may have!