Presentation on theme: "Where Do We Go From Here? Community Focused Tourism Development And The Possibility for Change In Todays Tourism Industry Emily McIntyre Katie Vivian Michelle."— Presentation transcript:
Where Do We Go From Here? Community Focused Tourism Development And The Possibility for Change In Todays Tourism Industry Emily McIntyre Katie Vivian Michelle Ramalho
Agenda Introduction Sustainability and Community-based Tourism Case Study: Operation Wallacea, Indonesia Stakeholder Involvement and Participation Collaboration and Partnerships Stakeholder Activity Benefits of Community-based Tourism Obstacles to Community-based Tourism Recommendations for the Future Conclusion
Introduction:Key Terms Community Based Tourism: Centers on the involvement of the host community in planning and maintaining tourism development in order to create a more sustainable industry (Hall, 1996). Community Development: Building active and sustainable communities based on social justice and mutual respect (Gilcrest, 2003).
Sustainability and Community Based Tourism Empowering Communities Providing Opportunities Grassroots involvement Democracy and Holistic Planning Break free from the destructive influences of mass tourism Regard for Socio-cultural and economic conditions Treated as subjects, and not objects
Case Study: Operation Wallacea, Indonesia Volunteer Tourism is the work of an individual(s) in a destination area during their vacation to accomplish a non-remunerative activity (Singh and Singh, 2004) Education Radio Announcements Work with Non-profit FORKANI Environmental and Cultural preservation Initiatives to spread the income
Host Attitudinal/Behavioural Responses to Tourist Activity (Bjorklund and Philbrick, 1972)
Stakeholder Involvement and Participation Local Control All voices should be heard Stakeholders involved in all processes from the beginning Indigenous systems are often more sustainable (Sharpley and Telfer, 2002) Harmonized with cultural traditions Community cohesion and cooperation Source: Brocku.ca/campusministries.com
Collaboration and Partnerships Lack of coordination in developing countries Collaborative effort is necessary for success in developing tourism Private, Public and Government Agencies Cross-border Cooperation Co-management as a solution to share resources (Plummer and Fitzgibbon, 2004) Collaboration under Sustainable Development
Partnerships (Bramwell and Lane, 2000) Benefits -Range of stakeholders involved for change and improvements -Democracy -Social acceptance -Coordination of policies - Importance of non- economic issues -Pooling of resources -Non-tourism activities may be encouraged Barriers -Limited tradition of stakeholders participating in policy making -Difficult for equal representation -Healthy conflict may be stifled -Collaborative efforts may be under-resourced -May block innovation -Costly & time consuming
Benefits of Community Based Tourism Higher degree of local participation Community-friendly destinations Infrastructure development Local products and labour Raises community-awareness Economic benefits
Obstacles to Community Based Tourism Traditional views of Power concentration Political power or coercion Role of Women Inadequate local expertise in tourism A sense of inadequacy Economic Issues Socio-Cultural Impacts
Recommendations Continued Community-based tourism provides a more sustainable alternative than mass tourism Role of Community leaders Continual monitoring and management Potential for Political, Social, Economic and Psychological empowerment Acheives sustainability, harmony and cultural integrity
References Bjorklund, E.M. and Philbrick, A.K. (1972). Spatial configurations of mental process. Unpublished paper, Department of Geography, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario. Bramwell, B. and Lane, B. (2000). Tourism Collaboration and Partnerships: Politics, Practice and Sustainability. Great Britain: Biddles Ltd.
References Contd. Jamal, T. and Getz, D. (1995). Collaboration theory and Community Tourism Planning. Annals of Tourism Research 22 (1), 186-204. Plummer, R. and Fitzgibbon, J. (2004). Co-Management of Natural Resources: A Proposed Framework. Environmental Management 33 (6), 876-885. Sharpley, R. and Telfer, D. (2002). Tourism and Development: Concepts and Issues. Clevedon: Channel View Publications. Sharpley, R. and Roberst, L. (2004) Rural tourism – 10 years on. International Journal of Tourism Research 6, 119-124. Singh, S., and Singh, T. V. (2004). Volunteer tourism: New pilgrimages to the Himalayas. In T. V. Singh (Ed.), New horizons of tourism: Strange experiences and stranger practices (pp. 181-194). Wallingford, UK: CAB International.
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