Presentation on theme: "Child Development Theorists: Lev Vygotsky & Erik Erikson"— Presentation transcript:
1 Child Development Theorists: Lev Vygotsky & Erik Erikson By: Sarah Turner and Emily Downs
2 Erik Erikson Born 1902 in Germany Died 1994 Enrolled in art school Taught art to American children who had come to Germany for Freudian trainingAdmitted into Vienna Psychoanalytic InstituteIn 1933 came to U.S. and became Boston’s first child analystObtained position at Harvard Medical SchoolLater on became clinician and psychiatric consultant
3 Erik Erikson’s Theory 1st stage: Trust vs. Mistrust 2nd stage: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt3rd stage: Initiative vs. Guilt4th stage: Industry vs. Inferiority5th stage: Identity vs. Identity Confusion6th stage: Intimacy vs. Isolation7th stage: Integrity vs. Despair
4 Stage 1: Trust vs. Mistrust Birth- 1 or 2 yearsA child needs to experience trust in early lifeIf a child learns to mistrust more than trust, the child will become frustrated, withdrawn, suspicious and will lack self-confidence
5 Stage 2: Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt 2-3 years oldParents need to be supportive so the child can develop a sense of self-control without a loss of self-esteemIf a child experiences an overly controlling parent they will not be able to do anything on their own
6 Stage 3: Initiative vs. Guilt 3-5 years oldDevelops sense of responsibilityEncouraged children to be as independent as possibleSet expectations that are in line with child’s individual abilitiesKey strength that grows out of the stage is purpose
7 Stage 4: Industry vs. Inferiority 5-12 years oldTime of great adventureProblems arise when a child feels inadequateTeacher or parent who overemphasizes mistakes can make child not want to learnEssential for child to learn to do things with others
8 Stage 5: Identity vs. Identity Confusion AdolescenceSeek true identityEither follow a crowd to be a part of something or develop sense of individuality
9 Stage 6: Intimacy vs. Isolation Young adulthoodOnly able to form intimate feelings with others if they succeed in finding their identity (stage 5)Either find intimacy in partner, friendship or family or they lead a life of isolation
10 Stage 7: Integrity vs. Despair Late adulthoodEither feel like they have contributed to society or haven’tDecides whether elderly person will be happy or discontent with life
11 Lev Vygotsky Born in 1896 in Byelorussia Graduated from Moscow UniversityStudied literature and psychologyWorked at Institute of Psychology in MoscowDied of tuberculosis at age 38, in 1934
12 Sociocultural (Social Development Theory) Focuses on how values, beliefs, skills and traditions are transmitted to the next generationFundamentally culturalThere is a zone of proximal development that reveals a patternConsciousness and cognition is the end product of social behavior“More Knowledgeable Other”
13 Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) The variation between a student being able to perform a task independently or being able to do it will adult/peer help
14 More Knowledgeable Other (MKO) Refers to anyone whose learning/cognition level is above the student’s levelCould be a parent, teacher, coach, older sibling, tutor, computer etc.
15 Social Interaction Social learning precedes development “Every function in the child’s cultural development appears twice: first on the social level, and later, on the individual level; first between people and then inside the child.” (said by Vygotsky)
16 Comparison Erik Erikson Lev Vygotsky Believed in connection between culture and development?Main FocusFamous ForErik EriksonYes, he came to find that culture had a massive influence on behavior. He focused his cultural studies on the external world, including things such as wars in his studies.He focused on the stages a person goes through in life and their outcomes. The stages focus on behavior.He was famous for his studies on behavior and creation of the stages of behavior a person goes through in life.Lev VygotskyParticularly believed in interpersonal connection between the child and other important people.Believed that social interaction (cultural) shaped how a child will learn and what they will be able to learn.He was famous for coming up with the zone of proximal development and studying the effects of culture on learning.
17 BibliographyArlene, By. "Erik Erikson Stages of Development." Google. Web. 01 Dec <http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:AnjdoAI4RJIJ:www.learningplaceonline.com/stages/organize/Erikson.htm did erikson believe in connection between culture and learning?&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us>."Definitions of Sociocultural Theory." The University of New Mexico. Web. 30 Nov <http://www.unm.edu/~devalenz/handouts/sociocult.html>."Psychology History." Welcome to Muskingum University. Web. 16 Nov <http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/ps ycweb/history/erikson.htm>."Social Development Theory (Vygotsky) at Learning Theories." At Learning Theories. Web. 30 Nov <http://www.learning-theories.com/vygotskys-social-learning-theory.html>.