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Superconductivity UK Dr. Philip Sargent, Diboride Conductors Ltd. Commercial superconductors for motors and generators.

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Presentation on theme: "Superconductivity UK Dr. Philip Sargent, Diboride Conductors Ltd. Commercial superconductors for motors and generators."— Presentation transcript:

1 Superconductivity UK Dr. Philip Sargent, Diboride Conductors Ltd. Commercial superconductors for motors and generators

2 Commercial Wire & Tape Commercial production: Niobium alloys (NbTi, Nb 3 Sn etc) B2223 / silver tape - 1 st Generation HTS Pre-commercial: MgB 2 Industrial laboratory: YBCO 2 nd Generation HTS coated conductor

3 Transition temperature (K) Superconductors Hg Pb Nb NbC NbN V 3 Si Nb 3 Sn Nb 3 Ge Leigh Jarvis Liquid Nitrogen (77K) Liquid Methane LNG (112K) (La, Ba) Cu) HgBa2Ca2Cu3O9 (under pressure) HgBa 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 9 TlBaCaCuO B Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O YBCO - YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 MgB 2 Tl, Hg…(138K)

4 More superconductors (TMTSF) 2 PF 6 YPd 2 B 2 C HoMo 6 S 8 (Chevrel) ErRh 4 B 4 CeRu2 heavy fermion K 3 C 60 Fullerene Sr 2 RuO – MgB C nanotubes PuCoGa 5 (18K) Nature 6 Mar Na 0.35 CoO 2 1.3H 2 O

5 HTS –complex copper oxides B Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O YBCO - YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7

6 HTS –perovskite ceramics Cu OBa Y YBCO - YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 B Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O

7 Engineering Implications Requires near single-crystal microstructure by complex processing, Oxide requires furnace treatment in controlled oxygen atmosphere, in silver, Highly anisotropic resulting tape: Along and across tape, Sensitive to magnetic field direction!

8 B2223 multifilamentary tape -1 Fill silver tube with precursor powders. Reduce by extrusion, swaging, drawing and rolling to a mono- filament aligned- crystal wire. Restack bundle in another silver tube.

9 B2223 multifilamentary tape -2 Draw multifilament Draw to align crystals Roll to tape Furnace heat treat

10 AMSC & Sumitomo AMSC & Sumitomo have a reciprocal licensing agreement American Superconductor 55 filament (B2223) tape Sumitomo (B2223) tape

11 AMSC B2223 Manufacturing Plant Larger billets, Process automation, Longer strands, Multi-dies, Faster line-speed, Combination of process steps Larger billets, Process automation, Longer strands, Multi-dies, Faster line-speed, Combination of process steps Began volume production in early 2003 Began volume production in early 2003 Full capacity could be 20,000 km/year, now 900 km/year Full capacity could be 20,000 km/year, now 900 km/year

12 > 150 m lengths 170 A also demonstrated in short lengths End to End Critical Current, Amps Frequency Manufacturing Campaign for Detroit Edison Manufacturing Campaign for Customer X (2002) (B2223) Critical Currents Manufacturing variability

13 Measured at AMSC & UW University of Wisconsin Jc (A/cm2, 77 K, 0.1T, //c) Measured at AMSC and University of Wisconsin Jc of 19.8kA/cm2 (77K, 0.1T, //c):a new level of performance for wire with production architecture Jc of 19.8kA/cm2 (77K, 0.1T, //c): a new level of performance for wire with production architecture Measurement in 0.1 T field avoids self-field current suppression Measurement in 0.1 T field avoids self-field current suppression B2223 Wire Improvement

14 Current Distributions in B kA/cm 2 Regions Observed in AMSC Monocore Tapes Headroom for Further Current Density Progress (U. Wisconsin/AMSC)

15 AMSC B2223 Plant History Development started in summer 1988 Development started in summer years (1998):10 years (1998): AMSC produces 20 km in 200 m lengths with an average current of 90 A at 77 K AMSC produces 20 km in 200 m lengths with an average current of 90 A at 77 K 14 years: 900km/y plant fully operational14 years: 900km/y plant fully operational 15 years: 900km/y plant & B2223 IPR value of $22m written off !15 years: 900km/y plant & B2223 IPR value of $22m written off !

16 How much does it cost to buy the wire to carry 1000 Amps a distance of 1m? Copper: 6 $/kA.m – 22 $/kA.m depending on current density (400 – 100 A/cm 2 ) Superconductors typically quoted at J c and at 77K and either zero magnetic field or self field. Cryogenic OFHC copper can be 0.06 $/kA.m. NbTi is approx. 0.9 $/kA.m in liquid helium. Price/Performance $/kA.m

17 Reduced Manufacturing Costs ($/m) and Increased Wire Performance (current carrying capacity) $/kA.m Price/Performance Ratio, $/kA-m Worlds First HTS Wire Manufacturing Plant Opened By AMSC Price/Performance $/kA.m 200 $/kA.m

18 B2223 & Commercial Products At $50/kAm (77K) price/performance ratio significant markets would be enabled (it was thought in ~1999): Utility Generators (>100MVA) Utility Generators (>100MVA) Ship Propulsion Motors and Generators (>5MW) Ship Propulsion Motors and Generators (>5MW) Wind Turbine Generators (>4MW) Wind Turbine Generators (>4MW) Urban T&D Power Cables Urban T&D Power Cables Industrial Magnetic Processing Industrial Magnetic Processing Significant worldwide industry in B2223 American Superconductor, Innova, Nordic Superconductor, Sumitomo Electric, Vacuumschmelze, Trithor Bought and shut down by AMSC in 2002

19 Magnetic Field High magnetic field reduces current carrying capacity Lower temperatures enhance current carrying capacity B2223 must operate 20K – 40K for motors which have fields ~ 2T B2223 at 27K carries twice the current, so $/kA.m reduces to 100 $/kA.m.

20 Saturation in Fe-3%Si at 1.6T Flux Density, B (T) 1.6

21 Copper: up to 400 A/cm 2 Peter Lees Cosmic Plot (UW/ASC) MA/cm Power Apps 30 – 77 K 1.6T

22 Key issues for power applications J e Overall current density J e of conductor, not just of superconductor Performance in field Multiple filaments for AC applications Anisotropy of J c with respect to field direction Cost! Conductor itself Cooling (AC losses) Scalability of fabrication Mechanical Strength, bend radius Conductor shape tape or wire or new motor designs

23 Diboride & YBCO YBCO and similar compounds have had research worth $$billions devoted to their physics and processing. MgB 2 was discovered in January 2001; physics now entirely understood. Both can be made in: Tape geometry Massive lumps for new motor designs

24 Mg B B B Magnesium Diboride

25 Magnesium Diboride ~ 400 $/kg

26 Making Diboride tape Cu-sheathed tape transverse cross section Tube filling with MgB 2 reacted powders Wire drawing and/or rolling Flat rolling Long lengths can be now fabricated irregular cross section Simple sintering ~700C

27 tube filling PIT Processing routes for the fabrication of MgB 2 wires + BMg a) IN-SITU b) MgB 2 EX-SITU 100m lengths of tape simple sintering reaction sintering 23% porosity draw to wire IN-SITU EX-SITU

28 Ball milling under Ar P. I. T. Swege Draw Flat rolling in = 5 mm out = 8 mm = 3.85 mm = 2 mm Tape 4 x 0.38 mm 2 P.I.T. Flat rolling Final Tape MgB 2 Université de Genève Powder in Tube

29 HyperTech CTFF for MgB 2 CONTINUOUS TUBE FORMING AND FILLING (CTFF)

30 Irreversibility field Increase magnetic field capability by metallurgy Create pinning defects by controlled alloying of MgB 2 L. Cowey et al., MgB 2 + yttria

31 10-Meter Long Square MgB 2 Wire Texas Center for Superconductivity and Advanced Materials University of Houston NASA Commercial Space Center C SAMT

32 Strain Effect on MgB 2 long tape 100 h ball milled Strain gauges Modified Walter s Spiral (WASP) MgB 2 Tape d=26 cm Université de Genève

33 In situ B+Mg with Fe barrier in Monel Sheath With iron –tough to make multifilament- most likely be cabled, (twisted) monofilaments for low AC loss conductor, working on Outer sheaths of Monel, Cu/Ni, and Cu to improve stabilization. Hyper Tech Research

34 Reasonable properties can be obtained with all Cu wires, Or with with Nb barriers in Cu. Multifilament wires can be made Hyper Tech Research

35 Shows ITER barrel wound with over 1 meter of MgB 2 wire, all Cu sheath, 1.00 mm diameter wire. The self field transport current for the coil at 4.2 K was 450 amps, the estimated transport current at 20 K would be amps. Hyper Tech Research

36 First test of an MgB 2 pancake K Critical Current [A] Magnetic Field [T] MgB 2 pancake BSCCO pancake MgB 2 BSCCO

37 Peter Lees Cosmic Plot (UW/ASC) MA/cm Power Apps 30 – 77 K Genoa 25 K

38 Magnesium Diboride (MgB 2 ) Advantages No weak-link effects, low anisotropy No weak-link effects, low anisotropy Easy to fabricate wires, films: <$10/kA.m potential Easy to fabricate wires, films: <$10/kA.m potential Challenges T c < 40 K (77 K applications like cables, transformers not viable) T c < 40 K (77 K applications like cables, transformers not viable) High field applications such as NMR not viable High field applications such as NMR not viable Possible applications in 20-30K range for modest field environments, e. g., rotating machinery

39 YBCO Coated Conductor Rolled, textured Nickel tape (Ni-W) Oxide buffer layer, preserves texture YBCO (or analogue, e.g. HoBCO), preserves texture Near single crystal 100s of metres long Near single crystal 100s of metres long <$10/kA.m potential <$10/kA.m potential

40 YBCO Coated Conductor Sumitomo YBCO-CC

41 YBCO Ni tape Oxide buffer layer deposition

42 YBCO YBCO precursor YBCO oxygenation and conversion

43 YBCO Slitting

44 YBCO Coated Conductor tape Active programs in US, Japan and Europe Examples of results in 2001: 122 A (75 K) over 1 m by LANL 122 A (75 K) over 1 m by LANL World record for meter length World record for meter length 50 A over 10 m by Fujikura 50 A over 10 m by Fujikura World record for 10 meter length World record for 10 meter length Over 60 m :Fujikura Over 60 m :Fujikura Worlds longest processed tape Worlds longest processed tape

45 Comparative Development YBCO CC Fujikura announces YSZ-IBAD process, early 1991Fujikura announces YSZ-IBAD process, early 1991 Ten years later (2001):Ten years later (2001): Fujikura produces 10 m with 50 A (77 K)Fujikura produces 10 m with 50 A (77 K) B2223 Work started in summer 1988Work started in summer 1988 Ten years later (1998):Ten years later (1998): AMSC produces 20 km at minimum 200 m piece length with an average current of 90 A (engineering current density 11,000 A/cm 2 at 77 K)AMSC produces 20 km at minimum 200 m piece length with an average current of 90 A (engineering current density 11,000 A/cm 2 at 77 K)

46 YBCO CC Technical Issues Adequate uniformity over length Stability to over-currents or cracks Adequate current in MOD films Mechanical properties – spalling, cracking Stability of metal-oxide epitaxial interface Deposition rate for ion beam and laser processes Thicker than 3 micron YBCO ? …but must have that 10 $/kA.m process!

47 B2223 (1G) to YBCO (2G)

48 Reduced Manufacturing Costs ($/m) and Increased Wire Performance (current carrying capacity) $/kA.m Price/Performance Ratio, $/kA-m Worlds First HTS Wire Manufacturing Plant Opened By AMSC Price/Performance $/kA.m 200 $/kA.m

49 AMSC 2G Plant 25 th Sept ORNL award of $2.5m to AMSC to commercialise 2G process 1 st October 2003 First tranche of $10m from US DoD and DOE to build 2G plant for YBCO-CC tape over 3 years. 3 rd October 2003 $44m share issue priced to be used to build 2G plant but all committed on pre-commercial processes!

50 Effort Performance Technology S Curves

51 Effort Performance Copper-Iron HTS g1 MgB 2 75y17y 2003 HTS g2 Power Technologies

52 Conclusions: Superconductors for Motors HTS G1: B2223 tape Diboride: MgB 2 wire MgB 2 HIPped bars HTS G2: YBCO CC tape YBCO cast crystals


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