Engineering Needs Generators, Transformers, Cables, FCLs, Motors, Grid conditioning, power storage Capital cost is most important for all of these in deregulated power markets Why superconductors? Higher power density, 100x the current Smaller Lighter (MgB 2 is 1/3 the density of Copper) Cheaper to buy and install Cheaper to operate Entirely new capabilities (FCLs)
HyperTech CTFF for MgB 2 CONTINUOUS TUBE FORMING AND FILLING (CTFF)
Boron Chemistry Pyrometallurgy: Mg + B + heat Powder in tube in situ Powder in tube ex situ Powder in tube ex situ + Mg Powder in tube + HIP CVD Mg + diborane Electrochemistry: Mg-borates in KCL Other chemical routes… ??
Materials Requirements Magnetic Fields 2-5 T (except cables) AC use requires T > 20 K (cryogenic cost) Materials parameters: Low cost: ~ 10 $/kA.m Practical volumes: J e (J c 10 5 A/cm 2 ) Low AC losses: W/kA.m at 50Hz. Flexible, low J e / strain sensitivity
10001001010.1 1 10 100 1000 10000 Y-123 IBAD 77K, 0T Bi-2223 77K, 0T NKT Target "Sokolowski Plot" of HTSC Wire Performance and Cost NbTi 4.2K, 2T Bi-2212 4.2K, 0T IGC Nb 3 Sn 4.2K, 12-15 T $1,000 $100 $10 $1 /kAm Operating Current, Ic (A) Cost ($/m) Bi-2223 77K,0T ASC 50 Comparative Performance Paul Grant EPRI
Transformers: a big prize Cost of Ownership in $/kW 2000 ABB SPI Phase I Analysis Cu (300 K) @ 300 A/cm 2 HTS (68 K)MgB 2 (25 K) Losses60 Cryo- Wire5 Total65 5 25 50 80 55 34 8 48 Paul Grant EPRI
First Major Applications Current Leads? No. FCLs ? New capabilities! Transmission Cables ? Distribution Cables ? Dielectric + thermal + AC lossses Transformers ? 98% efficient. Generators ? Power stations,Wind turbines? Non-Utility Power Applications Motors 68% of industrial power Half of that over 750kW Power electronics & Cryogenics
Years Market Share 0% 100% 10155 Materials Changeovers
Conclusions Necessary Partner Technologies Cryogenics, not 99.999% reliable Power electronics, why use AC if DC can do it? Motors Higher power density, 100x the current Smaller, Lighter Cheaper to buy and install Transport: ships, trains Environmentally friendly Prefer wire not tape! 12 April 2002
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