1 Ch. 32 - 33 – Sponges, Cnidarians, & Ctenophores What is an invertebrate?An animal without a backbone.What are some examples?Animals are classified by their shape or symmetry.What is symmetry?Arrangement of body parts around a central axis.
2 Types of Symmetry1. Asymmetrical – an organism without a definite shape.Ex. Sponge2. Radial symmetry – an organism that can be divided into similar halves by any plane that passes through its longitudinal axis.Ex. hydra
3 3. Bilateral symmetry – is an organism that can be divided into similar halves by only one specific plane passing through its longitudinal axis.Ex. Humans, spiders, fish
4 Parts of an organisms’ surface 1. Posterior – lower end of the organismEx. Feet of humans2. Anterior – upper end of the organism.Ex. Head of a human3. Dorsal – top surface of an organism.Ex. Back on a human4. Ventral – bottom surface.Ex. Belly of a human
5 Organisms Development Organism develop from a zygoteThen into an embryoNext is a blastula – a hollow ball of cellsFinal the blastula caves in and forms a depression called a blastopore. Once the blastula forms a blastopore it is now called a gastrula.
6 3 Germ Layers1. Ectoderm – outside layer of cellsEx. Skin2. Endoderm inside layer of cellsEx. Organs3. Mesoderm – middle layer of cellsEx. Muscles
8 Features of a sponge Osculum – top opening of a sponge A sponge is hollow in the middleThe sponge’s hollow cavity is lined with collar cells, which have flagella.The collar cells are used to filter out food. Water and food enter the sponge through its pores then pass back out its osculum. Sponges are filter feeders.
9 Amebocytes transport the food from the collar cells to the rest of sponge. Sponges have the ability to reproduce sexually or asexually; sponges carry both egg and sperm cells.Sponges reproduce asexually by producing buds called gemmules.
10 Sponges have the ability to regrow missing parts. What is this called? RegenerationMost sponges have both sperm and egg cells, some have separate sexes.Hermaphrodite is an organism with both egg and sperm cells.Video Clip
12 Cnidaria (phylum)Example: jellyfish, hydra, coralHave endoderm & ectoderm layersAll live in water (mainly marine)Have stinging cells called nematocystHave a hollow gutHave tentacles
13 2 body shapes of Cnidarians 1. PolypSessile and vase-like shape2. MedusaSwimming and bell shapeAll cnidarians use their tentacles to capture and paralyze their prey with a coiled stinger called a nematocyst.
14 3 Classes of Cnidarians1. Hydrozoa – HydraBoth polyps and medusa shapes2. Scyphozoa – jellyfishMostly medusa3. Anthozoa – coralsOnly as polyps
15 Hydrozoa (class)Hydra use their nematocyst to capture prey and engulf the whole prey into their gastro vascular cavity. They only have one opening (mouth and anus).Asexual reproduction of small buds occurs during warm weather.Sexual reproduction occurs mainly in the fall.Hydra are hermaphrodites.Video Clip
16 Scyphozoa (class)Mostly medusaJellyfish have poisonous tentacles with nematocyst, also.Several humans been seriously injured and even killed from jellyfish off the coast of Australia.Video Clip
19 Anthozoa (class) Video Clip Only polyp Sea anemones are polyps along rocks.Clown fish swim around in their tentacles. The clown fish is protected from the tentacles by a chemical in their skin that doesn’t allow the nematocyst to fire.Video Clip
22 3 main body cavities of organisms 1. Acoelomate – without a body cavity.Ex. Hydra, planaria2. Pseudocoelomate – false body cavity. No true digestive system. The gut is suspended in fluid, not muscle.Ex. Roundworm3. Coelomate – a true body cavity.Ex. Earthworm, insects, humans, ect.
23 Rotifera (phylum) Video Clip Rotifers Free-swimming Marine and freshwaterCilia along its mouth, which is used to sweep food into its mouth.Looks like a spinning wheel as it moves.Video Clip