Animal Classification Vertebrates - have a backbone Invertebrates - don’t have a backbone,… -They make up 97% of all species (sponges, Cnidaria, flatworms, round- worms, mollusks, insects)
What Animals Do to Survive -Many body functions help animals maintain homeostasis 1.Feeding 2.Respiration 3.Circulation 4.Excretion 5.Response 6.Movement 7.Reproduction
1.Feeding - Animals are heterotrophs, so they have to ingest food & digest the nutrients
2.Respiration - take in O 2 & release CO 2 3.Circulation -Moves materials around w/i their bodies -Some animals can rely on diffusion to move materials
4.Excretion -Most waste is ammonia (a poison to animals) -Is eliminated or converted to something less toxic & removed 5.Response - Nerve cells allow organisms to respond to their environment; not all org’s have nervous systems
6.Movement -Most animals move; with the help of muscles & skeleton -If they cannot move; have adaptations that allow them to meet their needs 7.Reproduction -Most reproduce sexually -Some can also reproduce asexually
BODY SYMMETRY 1.Asymmetrical – no pattern 2. Radial Symmetry – an axis (circle around a central point)
3. Bilateral – 2 sides which are a left & right side that mirror each other anterior – front end posterior – rear end dorsal – back or top ventral - belly *Note: animals in a group have similar characteristics because they have similar evolutionary histories.
Cephalization: concentration of sense organs & nerve cells at the front end of the body -org’s w/ cephalization react to environment quickly & in complex ways - the more complex organisms have more complex cephalization (bigger brains)
-Most animals also have a body cavity: a fluid-filled space that lies between the digestive tract & the body wall -- provides a place for internal organs
Assignment Look up Vocab Terms. If they are not in your book they are in your notes! You should find ALL WORDS!! QUIZ WEDNESDAY!
PHYLUM PORIFERA “Pores” Least complex animals Simple body plans No body tissues, organs, or systems
Characteristics Most are asymmetrical (a few radial) Adult sponges are sessile = don’t move Often found in colonies Live in water (mostly salt water) Many shapes, sizes, colors
Obtaining Food Food is filtered out of the water = filter feeding Choanocytes (collar cells) pull the water thru the ostia (pores) have flagella that help move water thru bringing in O 2 & carrying away wastes (leaves via osculum (hole at top)
Characteristics Live individually except coral & hydra Coral live as a colony of polyps covered by calcium carbonate (polyps join together to form a coral reef) Live in salt water except hydra
Radially symmetrical Have 2 cell layers, tissues, & a digestive cavity Arm-like tentacles surround mouth (tentacles contain stinging cells used to capture food & to protect)
Stinging cells (cnidocytes) contain a capsule which explodes & shoots out a thread w/poison (nematocysts) - prey is paralyzed by the poison & the tentacles pull it back to the body into the mouth
2 Body Plans Polyp – vase- like Sessile Hydra, sea anemone Medusa – bell shaped Free swimming Jellyfish
Asexually by buds which fall off parent Sexually w/egg & sperm Have both sexual & asexual stages to complete the cycle Sexually for free- swimming Fertilized eggs become the larva Larva settle & form polyp Asexually when young medusa bud & break off Reproduction Medusa Polyps
- have a nerve net that connects all parts of organism. - Allows for simple responses & movement.
Found in warm tropical seas between 30 o north & 30 o south latitude Many sea anemones attach to dead coral Reef is composed of a base of dead coral cemented together & living coral at surface Help protect beaches & shorelines/used for recreation (diving, snorkeling) CORAL