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Animal Phyla: Porifera & Cnidaria. Phylum Porifera (Sponges) Porifera means “__________________” Porifera means “__________________” Their bodies are.

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Presentation on theme: "Animal Phyla: Porifera & Cnidaria. Phylum Porifera (Sponges) Porifera means “__________________” Porifera means “__________________” Their bodies are."— Presentation transcript:

1 Animal Phyla: Porifera & Cnidaria

2 Phylum Porifera (Sponges) Porifera means “__________________” Porifera means “__________________” Their bodies are perforated with holes that lead to an inner water chamber Their bodies are perforated with holes that lead to an inner water chamber They pump water through these pores and expel it though_____________(large opening at top) They pump water through these pores and expel it though_____________(large opening at top)

3 Anatomy of a Sponge Key A) Osculum B) Pore C) Amoebocyte D) Spicule E) Choanocyte F) Flagella G) Microfilaments A C B D E F G D E E

4 Anatomy of a Sponge (Cont.) _____________________(Choanocytes) _____________________(Choanocytes) Inner layer of cells Inner layer of cells Contain flagella and microfilaments Contain flagella and microfilaments Flagella = suck water through pores Flagella = suck water through pores Microfilaments = trap food particles Microfilaments = trap food particles ___________________(Amebocytes) ___________________(Amebocytes) Middle layer Middle layer Take up food from choanocytes, digest it, and carry nutrients to other cells Take up food from choanocytes, digest it, and carry nutrients to other cells Form ________________ Form ________________ ____________________ ____________________ Scaffolding that give sponge shape Scaffolding that give sponge shape Used by scientists to identify different species of sponges Used by scientists to identify different species of sponges

5 Water Flow in Sponges… Pores  Internal Cavity  Osculum

6 Phylum Porifera (Cont.) ___________________(no symmetry) ___________________(no symmetry) Lack __________________ Lack __________________ Represent the most ________ animals Represent the most ________ animals They have been evolving the ___________! They have been evolving the ___________! Where do they live? (Habitat) Where do they live? (Habitat) ________________________________ ________________________________ How big are they? (Size) How big are they? (Size) _________________________ _________________________

7 Phylum Porifera (Cont.) What do they eat? (Diet) What do they eat? (Diet) ______________________ ______________________ Filter bacteria, protists, and small crustaceans from the water Filter bacteria, protists, and small crustaceans from the water How do they move? How do they move? Mobile _____________________ Mobile _____________________ ___________ (do not move) as adults ___________ (do not move) as adults

8 Phylum Porifera (Cont.) How do they reproduce? How do they reproduce? Asexually Asexually ____________________ ____________________ Produce internal buds called ______________which grow into new sponges Produce internal buds called ______________which grow into new sponges Regeneration Regeneration Able to ________________ missing parts Able to ________________ missing parts Sexually Sexually ____________________ ____________________ Both male and female sex cells made by _______________ Both male and female sex cells made by _______________ Sperm released from _______________of one sponge and enters the _________________ of another sponge– sperm of one sponge fertilizes the egg of another sponge Sperm released from _______________of one sponge and enters the _________________ of another sponge– sperm of one sponge fertilizes the egg of another sponge

9 Red Barrel Sponge Image Source:

10 Branching Sponge

11 Tube Sponge

12 Indonesian Sponge

13 Examples of Sponge Spicules

14 Life Cycle of a Sponge Sexual Reproduction Sexual Reproduction Egg and sperm meet Egg and sperm meet New sponge is not identical to parents New sponge is not identical to parents Sperm Larva Released Larva Dividing Cells Egg New Sponge Flagella (movement)

15 Phylum Cnidaria (Jellyfish, Sea Anemones, & Corals) Exhibit________ Symmetry Exhibit________ Symmetry 2 Forms 2 Forms __________ __________ Sessile form (vase shape) Sessile form (vase shape) ___________ ___________ Swimming form (umbrella shape) Swimming form (umbrella shape)

16 2 Body Layers 2 Body Layers Epidermis (outer layer) & Gastrodermis (inner layer) Epidermis (outer layer) & Gastrodermis (inner layer) Mesoglea Mesoglea Jelly-like substance in between inner and outer layer Jelly-like substance in between inner and outer layer Gastrovascular Cavity (GVC) Gastrovascular Cavity (GVC) Empty space where digestion takes place Empty space where digestion takes place Phylum Cnidaria (Cont.)

17 Anatomy of a Jellyfish

18 Phylum Cnidaria (Cont.) Cnidocytes and Nematocytes Cnidocytes and Nematocytes _________________ = _________________ = specialized cells specialized cells used for defense used for defense _____________ = _____________ = structures inside structures inside the cnidocyte that the cnidocyte that contain stinging filaments contain stinging filaments The filaments have sharp tips that can inject _________________ into victims The filaments have sharp tips that can inject _________________ into victims

19 1 st Nervous System 1 st Nervous System Porifera have _______ developed nervous system Porifera have _______ developed nervous system Cnidarians have _________________system Cnidarians have _________________system No brain, but rather a loose collection of nerves called a __________________ No brain, but rather a loose collection of nerves called a __________________ ___________________throughout the whole body ___________________throughout the whole body Phylum Cnidaria (Cont.)

20 Where do they live? (Habitat) Where do they live? (Habitat) Mostly ______________ Mostly ______________ ____________ found in fresh water ____________ found in fresh water How big are they? (Size) How big are they? (Size) Can be up to 6.5 feet in diameter and have ~_________________long tentacles Can be up to 6.5 feet in diameter and have ~_________________long tentacles

21 Phylum Cnidaria (Cont.) What do they eat? How do they eat? What do they eat? How do they eat? Tentacles _______________________. Tentacles _______________________. Nematocysts ___________ poison. Nematocysts ___________ poison. _____________ push food into mouth _____________ push food into mouth How do they move? How do they move? If mobile, move by contraction and expansion of body If mobile, move by contraction and expansion of body

22 Phylum Cnidaria (Cont.) How do they reproduce? How do they reproduce? Asexually Asexually Budding & Regeneration Budding & Regeneration Sexually Sexually Adult ____________releases ________ and __________ into the water where external fertilization takes place  zygote Adult ____________releases ________ and __________ into the water where external fertilization takes place  zygote Zygote forms the ___________________ (hollow ball of cells) and then forms a ___________ (ciliated larva) Zygote forms the ___________________ (hollow ball of cells) and then forms a ___________ (ciliated larva) ______________attaches to the ocean floor and develops mouth and tentacles ______________attaches to the ocean floor and develops mouth and tentacles Stacks of _______________ form and then detach to form individual jellyfish Stacks of _______________ form and then detach to form individual jellyfish

23 Life Cycle of Jellyfish Young Medusa Adult Female Medusa Adult Male Medusa Sperm Egg Blastula Planula Polyp

24 Class: Hydrozoa Hydra Hydra Polyp form found in __________________ Polyp form found in __________________ Portugese Man-of-War Found in tropical oceans Very _________________ to fish and even humans

25 Over ___species Over ___species Common Common jellyfish exist as jellyfish exist as both _______ both ____________________ Class: Scyphozoa Image Source:

26 Includes __________________________ Includes __________________________ All marine All marine Medusa stage ________________________ Medusa stage ________________________ Corals Corals Are polyps that live in _______________________ Are polyps that live in _______________________ Use nutrients from algae for energy Use nutrients from algae for energy ________________________________ ________________________________ Largest coral colony on earth Largest coral colony on earth _______________________ _______________________ Are polyps that use poisonous tentacles to feed on small fish Are polyps that use poisonous tentacles to feed on small fish Class: Anthozoa

27 Coral Polyps Coral Reef

28 Sea Anemone Image Source:

29 Cnetophora are technically a _____________________from Cnidaria, but they are closely related. Cnetophora are technically a _____________________from Cnidaria, but they are closely related. For our purposes, we’ll group comb jellies with __________ For our purposes, we’ll group comb jellies with __________ Cnetophora Cnetophora Found in ______________ Found in ______________ ______________________ ______________________ Cnetophora (Comb Jellies)


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