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The Horizontal Organization Mize (10-23-02) THE HORIZONTAL ORGANIZATION MIT Course 16.852J/ESD.61.J – Fall 2002 Dr. Joe H. Mize October 23, 2002.

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Presentation on theme: "The Horizontal Organization Mize (10-23-02) THE HORIZONTAL ORGANIZATION MIT Course 16.852J/ESD.61.J – Fall 2002 Dr. Joe H. Mize October 23, 2002."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Horizontal Organization Mize (10-23-02) THE HORIZONTAL ORGANIZATION MIT Course 16.852J/ESD.61.J – Fall 2002 Dr. Joe H. Mize October 23, 2002

2 The Horizontal Organization Mize (10-23-02) 2 REFERENCES Portions of this presentation were adapted from the following: Ostroff, Frank, The Horizontal Organization (New York, Oxford University Press, 1999) Hammer, Michael, Beyond Reengineering (New York, HarperBusiness, 1996) Hammer, Michael, Process Management and the Future of Six Sigma, MIT Sloan Management Review (42:2, Winter 2002) Majchrzak, Ann and Qianwei Wang, Breaking the Functional Mindset in Process Organizations, Harvard Business Review (Sept – Oct 1996) Galbraith, Jay, Designing Organizations (San Francisco, Jossey-Bass, 2002)

3 The Horizontal Organization Mize (10-23-02) 3 ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE Comprises the organizational components (units), their relationships and hierarchy Portrays where formal authority and power are located Provides a home and identity for employees

4 The Horizontal Organization Mize (10-23-02) 4 FUNDAMENTAL QUESTIONS REGARDING ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE Who goes where? What do they do? What are the positions and how are they grouped? What is the reporting sequence? What is each person, and each unit, responsible for? How does authority/accountability flow?

5 The Horizontal Organization Mize (10-23-02) 5 DEPARTMENTALIZATION Definition: The grouping of employees Bases for departmentalization by function or specialty by product line by customer/market segment by geographical area by work flow process combination

6 The Horizontal Organization Mize (10-23-02) 6 Functional Organization Structure President FinanceLegal HRCorporate Develoment Public RelationsProduct Marketing Customer Support Research & Development Production OperationsDistribution Receiving & Storage Quality Assurance

7 The Horizontal Organization Mize (10-23-02) 7 Product Oriented Organization Structure President FinanceHR Accounting Production Marketing CD CabinetsDisk Boxes

8 The Horizontal Organization Mize (10-23-02) 8 Geographic Oriented Organization Structure President Finance HR Accounting Production Marketing Western DivisionSoutheas DivisionInternational Europe South America Asia

9 The Horizontal Organization Mize (10-23-02) 9 Process Organization Structure (Horizontal Organization) General Manageer New Product Development ProcessOrder Fullfillment ProcessCustomer Acquisition and Maintenance New Product Teams Product Teams Customer Teams

10 The Horizontal Organization Mize (10-23-02) 10 VERTICAL (FUNCTIONAL) ORGANIZATION MODEL Inherent Shortcomings Internal focus on functional goals rather than outward-looking concentration on winning customers and delivering value Loss of important information as transactions travel up and down the multiple levels and across the functional departments Fragmentation of performance objectives brought about by a multitude of distinct and fragmented goals Added expense involved in coordinating the overly fragmented work and departments Stifling of creativity and initiative of workers at lower levels Slow responsiveness to changes in the external environment and to customer issue

11 The Horizontal Organization Mize (10-23-02) 11 LEGACY OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION A foundation of the I.R. was specialization of labor Business processes were decomposed into narrower and narrower tasks Efforts were focused on improving the performance of those individual tasks Organizational units (functional departments) also reflected this narrow specialization Tasks – and the organizations based on them – formed the basic building blocks of 20 th century enterprises We lost sight of the totality of the business processes

12 The Horizontal Organization Mize (10-23-02) 12 TASKS vs. PROCESSES Same as Parts vs. Whole A task is a defined unit of work, usually performed by one person or small group A process is a related group of tasks that together create an outcome of value to a customer Only when all the tasks are performed together as a wholistic process is value created When rewards are based on task performance, the total process performance will usually be sub-optima

13 The Horizontal Organization Mize (10-23-02) 13 MAJOR (CORE) BUSINESS PROCESSES Core Processes end-to-end work, information and material flows extends across a business (and even beyond the business boundaries) and drives the achievement of fundamental performance objectives to an organizations strategy usually no more than 4 to 10 in a typical organization

14 The Horizontal Organization Mize (10-23-02) 14 TYPICAL MAJOR (CORE) BUSINESS PROCESSES Order Acquisition Process – transforms a sales potential into a firm order in hand Order Fulfillment Process – transforms an order into delivered goods, a satisfied customer, and the paid bill Product Development Process – transforms a customer need and/or an advanced concept into a manufacturable design that satisfies the value proposition New Business Development Process – transforms technological and conceptual advancements into new businesses Customer Support Process – transforms customer concerns and needs into value-adding solutions Major processes are divided into sub-processes, which are then describable in terms of basic tasks or activities

15 The Horizontal Organization Mize (10-23-02) 15 FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES FOR ORGANIZING HORIZONTALLY Organize around cross-functional core processes, not tasks or functions Map processes, eliminate waste Re-deploy personnel and resources Install process owners who have responsibility for an entire core process Make teams, not individuals, the basis of organizational design and performance Empower individuals and teams to make decisions directly related to their activities in the work flow; provide essential training and education Ensure cross-trained work teams Retain down-sized functional units as centers of excellence for expertise and career- path homes for professionals Measure for end-of-process performance objectives (which are driven by the value proposition)

16 The Horizontal Organization Mize (10-23-02) 16 COMMON CHARACTERISTICS OF HORIZONTALLY STRUCTURED ORGANIZATIONS Core processes group employees according to the sets and scope of multiple skills needed to meet performance objectives Teams constitute the fundamental units of the organization and are largely self- supervised Process owners are responsible for leading and managing the entire core processes The primary focus is external rather than internal, emphasizing the delivery of the value proposition to customers Value Proposition Definition The set of benefits an enterprise offers at a price attractive to customers and consistent with its financial goals

17 The Horizontal Organization Mize (10-23-02) 17 ADVANTAGES OF CORE PROCESS GROUPING Eliminates the numerous handoffs that occur in functionally organized companies Facilitates a tight alignment with what the customer wants Highly compatible with the lean paradigm Fewer levels of hierarchy, reduced overhead effort Facilitates agility, rapid re-configuration, as external environment changes Performance measures and incentives/rewards can be tied more directly to tangible, measurable work progress Enhances morale

18 The Horizontal Organization Mize (10-23-02) 18 HORIZONTAL (PROCESS-ORIENTED) ORGANIZATIONS Question: Do they really work? Answer: Yes, provided... See HBR article by Majchrzak and Wong

19 The Horizontal Organization Mize (10-23-02) 19 PROCESS-COMPLETE DEPARTMENTS Definition: Departments that are able to perform all the cross-functional steps or tasks required to meet customers needs product design manufacturing supply chain support tasks interfaces with customers

20 The Horizontal Organization Mize (10-23-02) 20 Sample size: 86 31 were process-complete 55 were functionally organized Primary Measured Variable: Cycle Time Result: Process-complete departments had shorter cycle times only if their managers had taken steps to cultivate a collective sense of responsibility Result: Those process-complete departments which had not taken such steps had longer cycle times than the functionally organized departments

21 The Horizontal Organization Mize (10-23-02) 21 MEANS OF FOSTERING COLLECTIVE RESPONSIBILITY Structure jobs with overlapping responsibilities Arrange work areas so that people can see each others work Base incentives/rewards on group performance Design procedures so that employees with different jobs are better able to collaborate

22 The Horizontal Organization Mize (10-23-02) 22 CONCLUSIONS FROM STUDY 1.Restructuring by process can lead to faster cycle times, greater customer satisfaction, and lower costs, but only if the organization has a collaborative culture 2.If companies are not willing to change their culture, they may be better off leaving functional departments intact GENERAL CONCLUSIONS 1.Process oriented organizations are superior to functional organizations for many situations 2.One size does not fit all in organizational focus. There are still many situations in which the classical vertical organization is superior

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