B16-2 LEARNING OUTCOMES 1.Define the term operations management 2.Explain operations management role in business
B16-3 LEARNING OUTCOMES 3.Describe the correlation between operations management and information technology 4.Describe the five characteristics of competitive priorities
B16-4 OM FUNDAMENTALS Production - is the creation of goods and services using the factors of production Production management - describes all the activities managers do to help companies create goods Operations management (OM) - the management of systems or processes that convert or transform resources into goods and services
B16-5 OM FUNDAMENTALS Transformation process - the actual conversion of inputs to outputs
B16-6 OM FUNDAMENTALS
B16-7 OM FUNDAMENTALS Value-added - the term used to describe the difference between the cost of inputs and the value of price of outputs
B16-8 OM IN BUSINESS How does an airline service organizations OM team adds value? –Forecasting –Capacity planning –Scheduling –Managing inventory –Assuring quality –Motivating and training employees –Locating facilities
B16-9 ITS ROLE IN OM Managers use IT to heavily influence OM decisions including : –What: What resources will be needed and in what amounts? –When: When should the work be scheduled? –Where: Where will the work be performed? –How: How will the work be done? –Who: Who will perform the work?
B16-10 OM Strategic Business Systems Operations strategy addresses broad questions about using major resources to achieve corporate objectives Major long-term issues addressed in operations strategy include: –How big to make the facilities? –Where to locate the facilities? –When to build additional facilities? –What type of process(es) to install to make the products?
B16-11 OM Strategic Business Systems Strategic planning - focuses on long range planning Strategic business units (SBUs) - consist of several stand-alone businesses Materials requirement planning (MRP) - use sales forecasts to make sure that needed parts and materials are available at the right time and place
B16-12 OM Strategic Business Systems Tactical planning - focuses on producing goods and services as efficiently as possible within the strategic plan Global inventory management system - provides the ability to locate, track, and predict the movement of every component or material anywhere upstream or downstream in the production process
B16-13 OM Strategic Business Systems Operational planning and control (OP&C) - deals with the day-to-day procedures for performing work, including scheduling, inventory, and process management –Inventory management and control system –Transportation planning system –Distribution management system
B16-14 COMPETITIVE OM STRATEGY Five key competitive priorities which a company can add value to its OM decisions including: 1.Cost 2.Quality 3.Delivery 4.Flexibility 5.Service
B16-15 COMPETITIVE OM STRATEGY 1.Cost: There can be only one lowest-cost producer, and that firm usually establishes the selling price in the market 2.Quality: Is divided into two categories product and process quality –Six Sigma Quality –Malcolm Balridge National Quality Awards –ISO 900, ISO –CMMI
B16-16 COMPETITIVE OM STRATEGY 3.Delivery: a firms ability to provide consistent and fast delivery 4.Flexibility: a firms ability to offer a wide variety of products 5.Service: high-quality customer service adds tremendous value to an ordinary product
B16-17 OM AND THE SUPPLY CHAI N Supply chain - consists of all parties involved, directly or indirectly, in the procurement of a product or raw material Supply Chain Management (SCM) – involves the management of information flows between and among stages in a supply chain to maximize total supply chain effectiveness and profitability
B16-18 OM AND THE SUPPLY CHAIN Typical manufacturing supply chain
B16-19 OM AND THE SUPPLY CHAIN Typical service supply chain
B16-20 CLOSING CASE ONE How Levis Got Its Jeans into Wal-Mart 1.How did Levi Strauss achieve business success through the use of supply chain management? 2.What might have happened to Levis if its top executives had not supported investments in SCM? 3.David Bergen, Levis CIO, put together a cross- functional team of key managers from IT, finance, and sales to transform Levis systems to meet Wal-Marts requirements. Analyze the relationships between these three business areas and OM. How can OM systems help support these three critical business areas?
B16-21 CLOSING CASE ONE How Levis Got Its Jeans into Wal-Mart 4.Describe the five basic SCM components in reference to Wal-Marts business model 5.Explain RFID and provide an example of how Levis could use the technology to increase its business operations 6.Identify any security and ethical issues that might occur for a company doing business with Wal-Mart
B16-22 CLOSING CASE TWO The Digital Hospital 1.Why would operations management be a critical component to a hospital? 2.How would a hospital use each of the three OM planning strategies to improve its operations? 3.How might a hospital use each of the five competitive priorities to increase value to its goods and services?