3 What is NERC? Northeast U.S. blackout of 1965 Electric Power Reliability Act of 1967Ten regional councilsOrganizational objectivesDefine and measure reliabilityInfluence and interpret legislation regarding the power industryStudy interregional connectionsThere were several electric utility organizations around the country before NERC but their efforts were not as well coordinated as the work that NERC does today. The event that is most responsible for the organization that we know as NERC was the 1965 blackout of the northeastern U. S. and southeastern Ontario, Canada. As a result of the blackout, the U. S. government ordered a formal investigation of the event. The Federal Power Commission, now known as the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, made several recommendations as a result of the investigation including the Electric Power Reliability Act of One recommendation was the formation of a national council on power coordination. The resulting organization was named the National Electric Reliability Council. In 1981, the name was changed to the North American Electric Reliability Council in recognition of Canadian membership but the acronym remained the same.
4 NERC Regions NPCC MAPP MAAC ECAR WSCC MAIN SPP SERC ERCOT FRCC NERC is “owned” by its ten regional councils.ECARWSCCMAINSPPSERCERCOTFRCC
5 NERC Organization Board of Trustees Engineering Committee Operating CommitteeThe activities of NERC are directed by its Board of Trustees.The technical activities of NERC are carried out by the Engineering Committee and the Operating Committee.The committees and their subgroups are comprised of managerial and technical representatives from the Regional Councils and from electric industry ownership segments, and end-use customers as appropriate.
6 NERC Operating Committee MissionTo promote the reliability of the electricity supply for North America,To establish Policies,To monitor compliance,To provide a forum for dealing with issues.The are several pages in the NERC Operating Manual detailing operating committee organization and procedures.
7 NERC Standards Development PlayersStandards CommitteeOperating CommitteeEngineering CommitteeSubgroupDue Process Appeals CommitteeTechnical Appeals CommitteeNERC standards include NERC Operating Standards and Requirements and Planning Standards and associated measurements for determining compliance.Standards Committee. The NERC Operating Committee (OC) or Engineering Committee (EC).Subgroup. A subcommittee, working group, or task force of the OC or EC, usually where NERC Standards are drafted and posted for review.Due Process Appeals Committee. The committee that receives comments from those who believe that the “due process” procedure was not properly followed during the development of a Standard. The Due Process Appeals Committee consists of three Board representatives selected by the Board Executive Committee to serve a term of one year. Not more than one representative of the various electric industry sector, Canada, and end-use customer representatives may serve at the same time on the Due Process Appeals Committee. The NERC Vice President shall be the staff coordinator for the Due Process Appeals Committee.Technical Appeals Committee. The committee that receives comments from those who believe that the “due process” was not properly followed during the development of a Standard. The Appeals Committee consists of the vice chairs of the Operating Committee, Engineering Committee, and Board, the NERC Vice President, and the appellant party.
8 Standards Development Process 1. Request to revise or develop standard2. Assignment to subgroup3. Drafting phase and Internet announcement4. Draft standard posted for comment5. Subgroup deliberates on comments6. Draft standard submitted to Standards Committee7. Standards Committee votes on recommendation to Board8. Appeals processes9. Board approves10. Standard implementation or further appeals
9 Waivers to NERC Operating Policies Instances when an entity cannot comply with a NERC Operating PolicyRequested from the Operating CommitteeWaiver request must include an alternative planTemporaryThe OC expects instances when an entity will not be able to comply with an operating policy.
10 Waivers in Effect Scheduling Agent Financial Inadvertent Settlement Alliance RTOMidwest ISOSouthwest Power PoolGridSouthFinancial Inadvertent SettlementControl Performance Standard 2ERCOTFor this version of the Operating Manual, there are 3 waivers in effect.ERCOT waiverSingle control areaAsynchronously connected to the other interconnectionsCreates no inadvertent flows
11 Personnel Subcommittee Responsible for support materialsPromotes sharing of knowledgePeriodically reviews NERC Operating Policies pertaining to System Operator training and certification and recommends revisionsEstablishes policies and standards for NERC System Operator CertificationServes as the interim governance body for the NERC System Operator Certification Program
12 Introduction to the Operating Policies NERC DoctrinePolicies -- Place responsibility for operating reliability on the Control AreasStandards -- Requirements that are measurable and may be audited with surveysRequirements -- Describe the obligations of a Control AreaGuides -- Operating practices to be consideredNERC by-laws require mandatory compliance with Standards and Requirements.
13 Interconnections Eastern The largest interconnection DC ties to the Western and ERCOT interconnectionsWestern Interconnection2nd largest interconnectionDC ties to the Eastern InterconnectionERCOT
15 Control AreaAn electrical system bounded by interconnection (tie-line) metering and telemetryTwo requirements:Directly controls its generation to balance its actual and scheduled interchangeHelps regulate and stabilize the Interconnection’s alternating-current frequency
16 Control Area Obligations Interchange balanceInterconnection frequency
17 Interchange Balance Control Areas are connected by tie lines. Tie Line meteringControl Area calculates net actual interchangeControl controls actual interchange and contributes to frequency regulation with AGCControl Area is obligated to attempt to match is net actual and net scheduled interchange
19 Generation & Load Balancing Control Area Atie line flow ==100 MW150 MW50 MWControl Area DControl Area CControl Area EControl Area B
20 Interconnection Frequency Automatic Generation Control (AGC)Generator governors
21 ComplianceControl Areas are obligated to adhere to all NERC Operating Requirements and Standards.Control Areas are approved and certified by the NERC Performance Subcommittee and the appropriate Region.
22 Control Area Reporting Inadvertent Interchange AccountingControl Performance SurveysArea Interchange Error SurveysFrequency Response Characteristic SurveysFrequency Bias SettingsAllowable Limit of Average Deviation Survey
23 Security Coordinators Established in 1996Established the requirements for sharing of data and information about the “health” of the InterconnectionEstablished the Interregional Security Network for each InterconnectionRequired every Region, subregion, or interregional coordinating group to establish a Security CoordinatorRequired that each Region develop a security planRely on common operating terminology, criteria and standards
25 NERC Operating Policy Terms Several pages of terms and definitions are located in the Operating Manual
26 Confirmation as a Control Area To be recognized as a NERC-Certified CONTROL AREA, the entity must be reviewed by the REGIONAL COUNCIL in which the entity is a member and and confirmed that it meets the requirements of the specified Criteria.
27 Control Area Criteria Generation Metering Communications Transmission ArrangementsSystem OperatorsE-tag ServicesPerformance SurveysBack-up Control CenterCoordinationSystem RestorationCompliance with NERC Operating Policies and Standards
29 Security Coordinator Standards of Conduct Independent of employees/persons who engage in retail or wholesale merchant functionsAbide by rules governing employee conductWritten procedures publicly available and provided to all Security Coordinator employees
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