Presentation on theme: "1 Community Managed Schools in Nepal: Glimpses of Transformation Quality of Education Conference New Delhi October 24-26, 2007 Gajendra Man ShresthaRajendra."— Presentation transcript:
1 Community Managed Schools in Nepal: Glimpses of Transformation Quality of Education Conference New Delhi October 24-26, 2007 Gajendra Man ShresthaRajendra Dhoj Joshi
3 Community management framework - I School management committee (SMC) accountable to parents comprising: Elected by parents from among parents –Chair person –One female member –Two members Elected by teachers from among teachers –One member Nominated by elected members –Two members Ex-officio –Member of local government –Head teacher as member-secretary
4 Community management framework - II Government role: –Funding, standard setting, curriculum, textbooks, technical assistance, monitoring, and examinations (grade 8, 10 and 12) Community role: –Management, supplementary funding, monitoring and examinations Hiring and promoting permanent teachers, and setting terms of employment for community teachers Appointing head teacher Full financial autonomy
5 Evolution of community management Till 1951: few government schools 1951-71: proliferation of community schools (4,000); government funded 20-25% of operating costs of schools 1971-2001: nationalization of community schools 2001: voluntary transfer of public schools to community management; over 3,600 schools (out of 23,000 public schools) transferred to community management
6 Quality - the driver of community management Decline in quality of education following nationalization is the main reason for reverting back to community management Adequate resources and their efficient use are prerequisites for quality Nationalization led to decline in community contribution to schools and inefficient use of resources
7 Community School Support Project IDA support to implementation of the reform of community management of schools –Technical support –Support in public dialogue –Funding Next part of presentation – an account of CSSP experience
9 COMMUNITY SCHOOL SUPPORT PROJECT (CSSP) 1.Focus and Inputs of CSSP Focus on providing a support package to schools transferred to communities Inputs: a) School grant - Incentive grant to school opting for community management (One time grant) - Performance grant for improved participation and promotion rates
10 (Conti) 2 Inputs - Teacher salary grant - Matching grant b) Scholarship - Booster scholarship for never enrolled children - Maintenance scholarship for disadvantaged children c) Support to capacity building of communities in managing school d) Support to monitoring and evaluation activities
11 2. Implementation of CSSP At the request of GON, World Bank provided financial and technical assistance for the implementation of CSSP Department of Education (DOE) Ministry of Education and Sports (MOES)implementing agency of the project CSSP provided incentive grants to 3261schools and intensive support to 250 community managed schools (CMS) The geographic distribution of CMS is shown in the following map
12 3. Management Transfer to the Community as a Breakthrough Management transfer served as a break in the long tradition of rigid centralization and the total dependence of school on government The transfer served as a vehicle of transition toward: -Renewed local ownership -New context of collective responsibility -New trend of parental participation -Beginning of a new direction -New status and sense of authority -Sense of autonomy to address concern of local priority and aspirations
13 4. Changes and Transformations in CMS (Based on field study of 34 CMSs in 6 districts) Management improvement The transfer has made the SMC and PTA more active, responsive and focused on school improvement activities (SMC meeting 15 in 2006, PTA meeting 5 in 2006) SMC adopted improved management practices such as - Participatory planning process in preparing annual action plan -Formation of functional committees to monitor implementation of action plan - Adoption of new school regulations including teacher and student code of conduct -Transparent teacher recruitment and appointment procedure
14 CMS generated significant resources at the local level –Average Government grant received and local resource generation for selected years (NRs) Year Government Grant Local Resource Generation 2004302935161511 2005212938222362 2006149344232020
15 School environment look clean, hygienic and organized as a result of community care and concern Physical transformation served as a common ground for further cooperation and commitment to reform in other dimensions of school improvement. Improved physical facilities paved the way for stimulating and interactive teaching learning practice.
16 * Instructional Transformation Instructional transformation is most commonly manifested in : –Reorganization of classrooms, particularly early grades, with displays to make the learning atmosphere stimulating and child friendly. –Attempts in introducing English as a medium of instruction. –Support to teachers through the provision of teaching learning materials and training/ team planning.
17 Parental care and concern about students learning made the management and the teachers more serious and responsible in promoting childrens learning. Instructional days increased from 175 in 2004 to 189 in 2006 Instructional transformations range from the total system development to subject- wise improvement through teacher preparation and team work
18 Partnership For School Development CMS extended partnership to both internal and external partners Some interesting manifestations of internal partnership: - VDC mandate for Beni L.S in Myagdi District. - Merging of Durga Bhawani and Adarsha Primary Schools SOs contribution appreciated in the following areas: - Orientation to SMC, PTA, teachers and parents in school community relationship - Preparation of action plan. - Community mobilization, formation of mothers group, Childrens Club, Youth Club - Promotion of link with NGOs and INGOS for support. - Social audit. Emergence of New Alliances - Community School National Network (CSNN) - Education Journalist Group (EJG)
19 5. Outcome and Impact Outcome PAD indicators (Based on the follow up study of 30 ISP schools)
20 Table. Reduction in out of School Children for Selected Years S.NIndicators 200420052006 Reduction in out of school %) % as of 2004 Pad Target met n%n%n% 1 Out of School children of primary age 26354123243690115276550Yes 2 Out of School children of Girls 12864211453644315276545Yes 3 Out of School children of dalits 328502784111518336540Yes 4 Out of School choldren of janajati 1007449013934615296540Yes
22 Impact A conviction has emerged among CMSs that the community management of the school can make a difference in the look, functioning, and effectiveness of the school. A partnership has evolved between the school and the community which promoted the sense of responsibility and accountability in school management. Local resource generation and visible physical and instructional transformations in school have enhanced the credibility of the school. Several innovative features of CSSP have already been adopted in the EFA programming and budget. The policy impact of CSSP is reflected in the statement that the Education For All 2004-2009 is also taking a shift towards transferring school management to communities in view of sustainability and enhanced school accountability (ASIP, 2006).
24 Implications of community management - I Conclusions drawn are context specific Community management helps schools to improve accountability and tap non- government resources Community management can help to improve quality (based on anecdotal evidence; large scale surveys are going on)
25 Implications of community management - II Winning support for community management from teachers is a formidable task, but the support can be own if there is political commitment Rallying support of beneficiaries is critical – CSNN has proved to be instrumental for supporting the cause Voluntary approach has paid off
26 Implications of community management - III Success of community management of public schools have paved the way for a new type of community managed schools (schools without government teachers) –7,000 community schools without government teachers are to be converted into publicly funded community managed schools (contingent upon agreement not to claim for government teachers)
27 Implications of community management - IV Confidence set by community management has helped to introduce salary grants for teachers instead of supply of teachers – salary grants equivalent to 14,000 teachers salaries already introduced (expected to reach 31,000 in 2009) Acceptance of salary funding has paved the way for introduction of per capita (child) financing of salary grants Community management has helped to trigger systemic reforms in Nepal