2 Types of Windows Insert fig. 12-2 Insert fig. 12-3 Double-hung: consists of 2 sash that slide up and down in the window frame. Most widely used due to their economy, simplicity or operations and adaptability to many architectural designs.Horizontal sliding: have 2 or more sash and at least one of them moves horizontally within the window frame.Insert fig. 12-2Insert fig. 12-3
3 Insert fig. 12-4 Insert fig. 12-5 Casement: has a sash that is hinged on the side and swings outward. Installation usually consists of 2 or more units, separated by mullions. Provides good ventilation and crank allows for easy opening and closing of sash.Awning: have one or more sash that are hinged at the top and swing out at the bottom. Often installed side by side to form a ribbon effect, provides privacy for bedroom areas and greater flexibility in furniture arrangements along outside walls.Insert fig. 12-4Insert fig. 12-5
4 Insert fig. 12-6 Insert fig. 12-7 Hopper: has a sash that is hinged along the bottom and swings inward. They are easy to wash and maintain, but often interfere with drapes, curtains, and the use of inside space near the window.Multiple-use: a single outswinging sash designed so it can be installed in either a horizontal or vertical position. These windows are simple in design and do not require complicated hardware.Insert fig. 12-6Insert fig. 12-7
5 Jalousies: a series of horizontal glass slats held at each end by a movable metal frame. The metal frames are attached to each other by levers. These windows provide excellent ventilation, but weather tightness values are low. Their use in northern climates is usually limited to porches and breezeways.Fixed: can be used in combination with any of the movable or ventilating units. Main purpose is to provide daylight and a view of the outdoors. The glass is set in a fixed sash mounted in a frame the will match the regular ventilating windows.
6 Window Glass Insert fig. 12-10 Sheet glass used in regular windows is produced by floating. Melted glass flows onto a flat surface of molten tin in a vat more that 150’ long. As it flows over the tin, a ribbon of glass is formed that has smooth, parallel surfaces. The glass cools, becoming a rigid sheet and is then carried through an annealing oven on smooth rollers. Finally, the continuous sheet of glass is inspected and cut to usable sizes.SS: single strengthDS: double strengthInsert figStandard thicknesses of glass used in residential construction.
7 Energy Efficient Windows R-values: the resistance of any material to passage of heat is measured in these values. The lower the R-value the smaller resistance to heat passage.Double and Triple Sealed Glazing: 2 or 3 layers of 1/8” glass are fused together with a 3/16” air space between layers, used in large fixed units.Advantages:Lower heat loss in cold weatherDowndrafts along window surface are reducedHeat penetration in summer months is reducedSweating and fogging of windows in cold weather is reduced or eliminated.Less outside noise is transmitted through the windowInsert fig , A
8 Low-Emissivity Glazing: the relative ability of a material to absorb or re-radiate heat. Commonly referred to as “low-e” or “high performance” windows, they contain a clear outer pane, an airspace, and a special coating on the air-gap side of the inner pane. This coating consists of an extremely thin layer of metal oxide, which reflects infrared (heat wave) radiation, but allows regular light waves to pass through.Insert fig , B
9 Argon-Filled Insulating Glass: the R-value of sealed, double glazed windows can be raised by replacing the air between the glass with argon gas. This gas is heavier than air and has a lower heat conductance factor.Insert fig , C
10 ScreensVentilating windows require screens to keep out insects. The mesh, usually made from fiberglass, should have a minimum of 252 opening per sq. in. Manufacturers have perfected many unique methods for mounting and storing screen panels. Most modern screens are made with a light metal frame.Half screens are used on double-hung windows and fit under the top sash and between the jambs.Insert fig
11 MuntinsYears ago, window glass was available only in small sheets. By using rabbeted strips called muntins, small panes of glass could be used to fill large openings. Today, even though large sheets of glass are available, muntins are still used for special effects in traditional architecture. They are usually applied as an overlay and are made of wood or plastic in various patterns. They snap in and out of the sash for easy painting and cleaning.Insert fig
13 Window Terms to Know Insert fig. 12-26 Insert fig. 12-43 Jamb extension: intended to be applied to a standard window frame to adjust for various wall thicknesses.Glass blocks: good insulating properties. They provide light, prevent drafts, dampen noises and insure privacy. They are made of 2 formed pieces of glass fused together to leave an insulating airspace between.Insert figInsert fig
14 Window Terms to Know Insert fig. 12-44 Mortar key: panels of glass blocks may be supported by a mortar key at jambs in masonry, or by wood members in frame construction.Insert figInsert fig , only the top part (1- preparation of opening, 2- laying procedure, 3- caulking & cleaning)
15 Installing a Window Insert fig. 12-31 Place the window sill on the rough opening and then swing the top into place.Use wedge blocks under the sill and raise the frame to the correct height as marked on the story pole. Also adjust the wedges so the frame is perfectly level. There may be a tendency for the sill to sag on multiple units. Use additional wedge blocks to correct this and make the sill perfectly straight.Check to see that the unit is horizontally centered in the rough opening.Insert fig
16 Installing a Window Insert fig. 12-32 Insert fig. 12-33 Secure this position by driving several roofing nails (1 ½” long) through the lower flange and into the rough sill.Plumb the side jambs with a level, and check the corners with a framing square. The sash should be closed and locked in place.Check for front-to-back plumb. Place the level on the outside face of the frame and make sure the window is not tilted outward or inward.Drive several nails temporarily into the top of the side casings.Insert figInsert fig
17 Installing a Window Insert fig. 12-34 Check over the entire window to see that it is square and level. Use additional wedge blocks (shims) if necessary. Check sash for easy operation and make sure there is an even space between sash and frame.Nail the window permanently in place with 1 ¾” or longer galvanized roofing nails. Space the nails from 12-16” on center or as specified by the window label.Insert fig
18 Exterior Door Frames Insert fig. 12-54 Insert fig. 12-55 Insert fig (first door on left)Insert fig (second door on right)
19 Door Terms to Know Insert fig.12-68 Knocked down (K.D.): door frames are manufactured at a millwork plant and arrive at the building site either assembled and ready to install or disassembled, knocked down. These units are assembled by the dealer or distributor.Sliding glass door: often used on a terrace or patio, this type of door rides on nylon or stainless steel rollers and is easy to operate. These units contain at least 1 fixed panel and 1 moving or operating panel.Insert fig.12-68
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