Siberia Permafrost Average temperatures of January vary from 0 to -50°C, and in July from 1 to 25°C 142,000,000 population. 142,000,000 population. A former gulag Soviet prison camp. A former gulag Soviet prison camp.
Themes in Russian History Expansion by conquest. Expansion by conquest. Need for warm-water ports. Need for warm-water ports. The necessity of a strong, central government. The necessity of a strong, central government.
Early Byzantine Influences: Orthodox Christianity
Ivan the Great (r. 1462-1505) Ivan III Tearing the Great Khans Letter Requesting More Tribute in 1480.
Ivan 4 the Terrible Brutal Takes title of Czar (caesar) Encourages trade Reduces power of the Boyers (nobles) Decimates anyone who he perceives as a threat.
Michael Romanov (r. 1613-1645) 1st of the Romanov dynasty
Romanov Dynasty (1613-1917) Romanov Family Crest
The Pendulum of Russian History Pro-West For Progress & Change Encourage New Ideas, Technologies, etc. Anti-West Isolationist Xenophobic Ultra-Conservative Most Tsars Most Tsars Russian Orthodox Church Russian Orthodox Church Military Military Boyars Boyars peasants peasants A few Tsars A few Tsars Intellectual elites Intellectual elites Merchants/businessmen Merchants/businessmen Young members of the middle class. Young members of the middle class. REFORM-MINDED LEADER DEMAGOGUE