Presentation on theme: "Chapter 18 – The Rise of Russia Moscow – capital of Russia; the “3 rd Rome” took the lead in liberating Russia from the Mongols in the 14 th c. Ivan III."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 18 – The Rise of Russia Moscow – capital of Russia; the “3 rd Rome” took the lead in liberating Russia from the Mongols in the 14 th c. Ivan III – (Ivan the Great) responsible for freeing Russia from the Mongols; took the title of tsar; gave his government a military focus and used a blend of nationalism and the Orthodox Christian religion to succeed in creating a large independent state.
The Mongols Invade Russia
Themes in Russian History Expansion by conquest. The necessity of a strong, central government.
Early Byzantine Influences: Orthodox Christianity
Ivan the Great Literacy declined and the economy became purely agricultural and dependent on peasant labor Ivan III (the Great), restored the tradition of centralized rule, added a sense of imperial mission Claimed supervision of all Orthodox churches Boyars – the Russian nobles
Ivan the Great (r ) Ivan III Tearing the Great Khan’s Letter Requesting More Tribute in 1480.
The Russians moved across their regions’ vast plains to the Caspian Sea and Ural Mountains Russia became a multicultural state The large Muslim population was not forced to assimilate to Russian culture
Ivan IV (The Terrible) – Confirmed power of tsarist autocracy by attacking the authority of the boyars (nobles); continued policy of expansion; established contacts in western European commerce and culture Ivan IV, continued the policy of expansion by conquest Increased the power of the tsar by killing many of the boyars (nobility) Cossacks – Peasant adventurers with agricultural and military skills recruited to conquer and settle in newly seized lands in southern Russia and Siberia
“Time of Troubles” – Early 17 th century period of boyar efforts to regain power and foreign invasion after the death of Ivan IV without an heir; ended with the selection of Michael Romanov as tsar in 1613
Romanov Dynasty ( ) Romanov Family Crest
Michael Romanov (r )
Alexis Romanov Romanov dynasty – Ruled Russia from Boyars chose a member of the Romanov family, Michael as tsar after the “Time of Troubles” Michael Romanov restored internal order, drove out the foreign invaders, and recommenced imperial expansion Alexis Romanov- Second ruler of the dynasty; abolished assemblies of nobles; gained new powers over the Orthodox church
Russia & Sweden After the Great Northern War Peter the Great wanted a port on the Baltic Sea
Russian Boyars Alexis Romanov increased the tsar’s authority by abolishing the assemblies of nobles (Boyars) and restoring state control over the church
Early Byzantine Influences: Cyrillic Alphabet Old Believers – Russians who refused to accept the ecclesiastical reforms of Alexis Romanov; many were exiled to southern Russia or Siberia
Russia in the Late 1500s
Peter the Great (r ) Peter I (the Great) – Tsar from ; continued growth of absolutism and conquest; sought to change selected aspects of the economy and culture through imitation of western European models
Peter the Great was an autocratic ruler (autocracy); revolts were brutally suppressed Peter increased the power of the state by forming a Western type military force A secret police was created to prevent dissent and watch over the bureaucracy A successful war with Sweden gave Russia a window on the Baltic Sea
Peter’s capitol moved to the Baltic city of St. Petersburg The first Russian navy was created Improved military weaponry *Less reliable on importing military weapons. The bureaucracy and military were reorganized on Western principles
Peter attempted to provide increased education in mathematics Law codes were systematized and the tax system reformed to increase the burdens on the peasantry “Westernization” meant to Peter the encouragement of autocratic rule
Catherine the Great – German- born Russian tsarina; combined selective Enlightenment ideas with strong centralizing policies; converted the nobility to a service aristocracy by granting them new power over the peasantry Partition of Poland – three separate divisions of Polish territory among Russia, Prussia, and Austria in 1772,1793,and 1795; eliminated Poland as an independent state Pugachev Rebellion – Unsuccessful peasant uprising led by Cossack Pugachev during the 1770’s; typical of peasant unrest during the 18 th c. and thereafter
Catherine used the Pugachev peasant rebellion as an excuse to extend central government authority Catherine also had a Westernized attitude and brought Enlightenment ideas to Russia, but centralization and strong royal authority were more important to her than Western reform.
Under Catherine the Great, new territories, including the Crimea on the Black Sea, were gained in central Asia from the Ottomans
Westernization – Process in which traditional cultures come under the influence of Western culture Serfdom – Institution in which a peasant is attached to a feudal estate Catherine the Great pushed colonization in Siberia and claimed Alaska Russian explorers went down the North American coast into northern California
The Pendulum of Russian History Pro-West For Progress & Change Encourage New Ideas, Technologies, etc. Anti-West Isolationist Xenophobic Ultra-Conservative Most Tsars Russian Orthodox Church Military conquest Boyars/nobility Peasants/serfdom A few Tsars Intellectual elites Merchants/businessmen Young members of the middle class. REFORM-MINDED LEADER DEMAGOGUE
A 1649 act made serfdom hereditary; other 17 th and 18 th century laws tied serfs to the land and augmented the legal rights of landlords Serfs were almost slaves; they were bought, sold and punished by owners
Peasant discontent was more significant, they remained loyal to the tsar, but blamed landlords for the harshness of their lives Russia’s emergence as a key player in both Europe and Asia provided a crucial development in the early modern era