2What is Anorexia Nervosa? Anorexia nervosa, in the most simple terms, is self-starvation.Anorexics feel there is a serious disturbance in the way they feel about food, weight, and body image.Anorexics are also often characterized as stubborn, vain, appearance-obsessed people who simply do not know when to stop dieting.
3How do Anorexics see life? Food and eating dominate the life of a person with anorexia nervosa.Body weight and shape become the main or even sole measures of self-worth.Maintaining an extremely low weight becomes equated with beauty, success, self-esteem, and self-control and is not seen as a problem.People with an eating disorder think about food, weight, and body image constantly.
5Cultural PressuresIn many societies, being extremely thin is the standard of beauty for women and represents success, happiness, and self-control.Women are bombarded with messages from the media that they must diet to meet this standard. However, this idealized ultra-thin body shape is almost impossible for most women to achieve since it does not fit with the biological and inherited factors that determine natural body weight.
6Psychological IssuesPsychological characteristics that can make a person more likely to develop anorexia nervosa include:Low self-esteemFeelings of ineffectivenessPoor body imageDepressionDifficulty expressing feelingsRigid thinking patternsNeed for controlPerfectionismPhysical or sexual abuse
7Family EnvironmentSome family styles may contribute to the development of anorexia nervosa. Families of people with the disorder are more likely to be:OverprotectiveRigidSuffocating in their closenessIn these cases, anorexia nervosa develops as a struggle for independence and individuality. It is likely to surface in adolescence when new demands for independence occur.Overvaluing appearance and thinnessCriticizing a child's weight or shapeBeing physically or sexually abusive
8Genetic FactorsAnorexia nervosa occurs eight times more often in people who have relatives with the disorder. However, experts do not know exactly what the inherited factor may be.In addition, anorexia nervosa occurs more often in families with a history of depression or alcohol abuse.
9Life TransitionsLife transitions can often trigger anorexia nervosa in someone who is already vulnerable because of the factors described above. Examples include:Beginning of adolescenceBeginning or failing in school or at workBreakup of a relationshipDeath of a loved oneDieting and losing weight can also set off anorexia nervosa
10Perpetuating FactorsOnce anorexia nervosa has developed, several factors can perpetuate the disorder. These factors include:Symptoms of starvationOther people's reactions to the weight lossEmotional needs filled by feelings of self-control, virtue, and power from controlling one's weightThe resulting cycle makes it more difficult to stop the disorder and become healthy again.
11The resulting cycle makes it more difficult to stop the disorder and become healthy again.
12What Medical Problems Can Anorexia Nervosa Cause? Problems associated in weight loss include lowering of:Heart rateBlood pressureBreathing rateBody temperature (which may result in feeling cold)Other Physical problems include:Thinning or drying of the hair “Lanugo" hair (a fine hair that develops on the face, back, or arms and legs)Dry skinRestlessness and reduced sleepYellowish color on the palms of the hands and soles of the feetLack of or infrequent menstrual periodsDeath!
15Facts about Anorexia Nervosa About 90% to 95% are females between ages 13 and 30. However, anorexia nervosa can also occur in males and people of all ages.Although anorexia nervosa is most common in the white upper and middle class, it occurs in people of all racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic backgrounds.
16Anorexia Facts Cont…People in certain occupations that emphasize leanness to improve performance and appearance are at increased risk for developing anorexia nervosa. These include dancers, gymnasts, figure skaters, runners, wrestlers, cheerleaders, sorority girls, and models.
17Celebrities battling the disease Anorexia Nervosa
18Reflection QuestionsDo you compare yourself to magazines, celebrities, actors, or models?When you do, do you think about it all day?Do you think the media plays a huge part in the role of eating disorders today? Why?Do you think someone can cure themselves from Anorexia or Bulimia?What do you think can be done to help with the increase in eating disorders?
19Bulimia NervosaBulimia is characterized by episodes of binge-eating followed by inappropriate methods of weight control (purging). Inappropriate methods of weight control include vomiting, fasting, enemas, excessive use of laxatives and diuretics, or compulsive exercising.A binge is an episode where an individual eats a much larger amount of food than most people would in a similar situation.Binge eating is not a response to intense hunger. It is usually a response to depression, stress, or self esteem issues.During the binge episode, the individual experiences a loss of control.
20What Causes Bulimia? Biology Culture Personal feelings Stressful events or life changesFamilies
21BiologyThere are studies being done to look at many genes, hormones, and chemicals in the brain that may have an effect on the development of, and recovery from, bulimia.
22Personal feelingsThings like starting a new school or job, being teased, or traumatic events like rape can lead to the onset of bulimia.
23CultureSome cultures in the U.S. have an ideal of extreme thinness. Women may define themselves on how beautiful they are.
24FamiliesThe attitude of parents about appearance and diet affects their kids. Also, a person is more likely to develop bulimia if a mother or sister has it
25What are signs of bulimia? People with bulimia may be underweight, overweight, or have a normal weight. This makes it harder to know if someone has this disorder. However, someone with bulimia may have these signs:
26Uses extreme measures to lose weight uses diet pills, or takes pills to urinate or have a bowel movement (BM)goes to the bathroom all the time after she eats (to throw up)exercises a lot, even during bad weather, tiredness, sickness, or injury
27Shows signs of throwing up swelling of the cheeks or jaw areacuts and calluses on the back of the hands and knucklesteeth that look clear
28What are the symptoms of Bulimia? Eating uncontrollably, purging, strict dieting, fasting, vigorous exercise • Vomiting or abusing laxatives or diuretics in an attempt to lose weight • Vomiting blood • Using the bathroom frequently after meals • Preoccupation with body weight • Depression or mood swings • Feeling out of control • Swollen glands in neck and face • Heartburn, bloating, indigestion, constipation • Irregular periods • Dental problems • Sore throat • Weakness, exhaustion • Bloodshot eyes