2“Management Talk”“Teams, training, and increased authority for workers are key elements of quality-improvement efforts…To help accomplish their objectives, teams are aided by company-trained employees, who provide skills training and serve as resources throughout all phases of the teams’ work.”National Institute of Standards and Technology, describing its 1992 Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award winner, AT&T Network Systems Group (Lucent Technologies)
3ObjectivesExplain the difference between formal and informal work groupsDiscuss group norms, group cohesiveness, and group conformityUnderstand why individuals conform to group normsRecognize the importance of work groups to an organizationSuggest ways to build effective work groups
4Understanding Management When Lucent Technologies spun off from its parent company, AT&T, it gained the freedom to organize its workforce differently. Most Lucent employees work in teams designed to foster efficiency, creativity, and innovation. This approach gives employees the flexibility to solve problems and invent new products. In fact, Lucent can boast of earning about two patents per working day, as well as the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award.
5Management SkillsWhy would it be important for tam members to receive continual training?If you were on a team responsible for inventing a communications system, what qualities would you appreciate in your team members?
6Sec. 14.1: How Groups Behave Brainwrite/Brainstorm: What are the pros and cons of group work?What kinds of group work have you experienced?
7What You’ll LearnThe differences between formal and informal work groupsWhy employees join informal work groupsThe factors that influence how groups behaveThe meaning of “groupthink.”
8Why is this important?“To supervise groups effectively, managers must understand the dynamics of group behavior”
9Groups Within Organizations Two or more people who interact to meet a shared goalA shared sense of purpose sets a group apart from just a gathering of people
10Types of Groups Formal Work Groups Exist for short or long period of timeTask ForceA single goal to resolve a problem or design a new productFunctional GroupConsists of manager and all the employees he or she supervises in an ongoing manner
11Types of Groups Informal Work Groups Formed voluntarily by members of an organizationDevelop personal contact and interactions among peopleInterest GroupsShare a purpose or concernWomen executives form a group to share ideas about issues facing women in managementThe workplace is where socialization takes place and friendships emergeAffects of Informal Work GroupsProductivityMoraleSuccess of ManagersSense of LoyaltyWork for or against organizational goals
12Groups Within Organizations Management does not recognize informal groups that revolve around friendship, interests, or shared working space and tasks.An understanding of informal groups can improve managers’ work with formal work groupsSatisfaction from informal groups should be duplicated in a formal work group environment
13Group NormsInformal rules a group adopts to regulate the behavior of group membersExpectations of group members to improve:Productivity levelsOperating proceduresOther work-related activitiesGroup norms can be written, spoken, or acted out by group members to show new members how to behave
14Group Behavior Group Cohesiveness Degree of attraction among group members, or who tightly knit a group isMore Cohesiveness = Greater likelihood that Group Norms will be followedFactors affecting cohesiveness of informal work groupSizeSmall work groupsSuccessHigh SuccessStatusHigh StatusOutside PressuresConflicts with management increase group cohesiveness (Us Against Them)Stability of MembershipLong-Standing MembersCommunicationEasy lines of communication in social AreasPhysical IsolationForces workers into close contact with each other and strengthens bonds
15Group Behavior Group Conformity Degree to which group members accept and follow group normsGroup seeks to control members’ behavior for two reasons:Independent behavior can cause disagreements that threaten a group’s survivalConsistent behavior creates an atmosphere of trust that allows members to work together and socialize comfortablyIndividuals conform to group norms when they are:Similar to personal attitudes, beliefs, and behaviorDo not agree with the group’s norms but feel pressure to accept them
16Group Behavior Group Pressure and Conformity Group pressure can break-down a group when one member goes above and beyond the rest of the group(Case Study) A textile employee began to produce more than the group norm of 50 units per day. After two weeks, the group started to pressure this worker to produce less, and she quickly dropped to the group’s level. After three weeks, all the members of the group were moved to other jobs except for this worker. Once again, her production quickly climbed to double the group norm.Why would the other workers try to slow their co-worker down?Was it fair for other workers to try to slow her down?
17Group Behavior Groupthink When group members lose their ability to think as individuals and conform at the expense of their good judgmentMembers become unwilling to say anything against the group or any memberGroupthink members will justify any action, stereotype outsiders as enemies of the group, and pressure unwilling members to conformGroupthink is disruptive because it affects employees’ ability to make logical decisionsImagine that you are the new manager of a department that has succumbed to groupthink. What steps would you take to encourage individual thinking?
18Extension Activity!!!Have students write an opinion piece, act out a workplace situation, or design a cartoon illustrating the concept of groupthink
1914. 1: Chapter SummaryOrganizations have two kinds of work groups, formal and informalInformal work groups develop around friendship, shared interests, or similar work responsibilitiesInformal groups have their own norms, are cohesive, and develop ways to maintain conformity
20Sec. 14.2: Managing Formal Groups Review the explanation formal groups and predict what role managers play in helping formal groups succeedWhat qualities might be helpful to a manager in the team building process?
21What You’ll Learn Why is this Important? The importance of formal work groupsHow managers can influence group cohesiveness and conformityMethods of encouraging teamwork in formal groupsThe characteristics of successful group leadersWhy is this Important?“Formal work groups are an important way of organizing work and managers must help them succeed.”
22The Importance of Formal Work Groups Groups have more knowledge and information than individualsEase the process of communicating and solving problemsCreates more efficiencyManaging groups effectively will enable a company to:Improve productionMaintain a competitive edge (advantage)Managers must overcome cultural and gender differences
23Influencing Work Groups Hawthorne Effect – giving special attention to a group of employees changes the employees’ behaviorJob factor varianceEmployee paySupervisionLightingLength of rest periodsNumber of hours worked
24Building Effective Work Groups “Managers are responsible for developing shared values and group loyalty in formal work groups”Linking-Pin ConceptSince managers are members of overlapping groups, they link formal work groups to the total organizationManagers improve communication and ensure that organizational and group goals are metManagers themselves are the “linking pins”
25Building Effective Work Groups Team BuildingProcess of establishing a cohesive group that works together to achieve its goalsManagers can encourage teamwork by:Selecting group members carefullyCreating a positive work environmentBuilding TrustIncreasing Group Cohesiveness
26Building Effective Work Groups Creating GroupsIdentify qualified peopleMake the group attractive to these individualsIncrease of payJob SatisfactionBenefits that are provided just like an informal work groupConsider office layout and physical factors affecting group’s ability to work together successfully
27Building Effective Work Groups “You’ve got to pick a few people and really trust them.”- Bill Gates, MicrosoftBuilding TrustSharing responsibility and making decisions togetherTrust enables members to stick to the group normsManagers must:Have faith in employeesRecognize the interests of the organization, the group, and the employeesBecome personally involved, take a real interest in group members, share information, and exhibit honestyWhat kinds of managerial problems might arise if employees lose confidence or trust in a manager?
28Building Effective Work Groups Influencing Group Cohesiveness and ConformityManagers can affect formal group performance levels to those individuals who are highly competitive and eager to succeed by:Keeping groups smallSelecting group members carefullyFinding a good personality fit between new and old employeesDeveloping an office layout that improves communicationCreating clear goalsInspiring group competitionRewarding groups rather than individualsIsolating groups from each other
29Building Effective Work Groups “Whether on the court or off, what I call for in my people is full awareness and attention.”Phil Jackson, Former Coach of the 6-time NBA Champion Chicago BullsJackson’s approach teaches individuals:To value the needs of the teamTo surrender their egos so that the end result is bigger than the sum of its parts
30Quality CirclesA group of employees from a single work unit (such as a department) who share ideas on how to improve qualityEncourage employees in decision makingMembership is usually voluntaryMembers share a common bond – performing similar tasksEncourages communication and trust among members and managersInexpensive way to provide employees with training while giving them a sense of control over their work livesMay solve problems that have been around for years“Me” becomes “Us” in a good quality circle
31Groups and LeadersInformal groups select a leader most capable of satisfying the group’s needsGaining AcceptanceManagers assigned to formal work groups must work to gain acceptance as leadersWhat makes a good teacher, makes a good manager?Know their subject wellCommunicate information effectivelyTreat students with respectMake fair judgments
32Groups and Leaders Encouraging Participation Managers encourage participation and shared responsibility, acting more like a coach than a managerHow does one encourage team spirit?Provide the group with a shared visionLead by example (Attitude and Performance)Encourage group to listen and support all membersFunction within a cohesive group
3314. 2: Chapter SummaryFormal work groups often lack the loyalty and shared values that characterize informal groups, so managers work hard to encourage participationManagers can build effective teams by selecting the right candidates, building trust, and encouraging group cohesivenessIn order to be good team leaders, managers must be accepted by the group, understand how to provide a vision, and lead by example
34Speech SkillsYou have been a member of many formal and informal groups in your life. Examples of such groups may include a youth group, a sports team, co-workers at a summer or part-time job, or neighborhood friends. Some of the groups have been effective and some have not. Think about the most effective and ineffective groups you have been in. Prepare a brief presentation describing the characteristics of each group.
35Assessing Team SkillsWithin the class, organize team to compete in a “paper airplane contest” where each team will compete for distance and flight time. Have each group select a captain, then work together to create cohesiveness. Methods may include practicing together, engaging in a group activity, or sharing personal information. Keep record of the methods your group uses. Once the contest has been completed, compare your methods and results with those of the other teams. What methods did the winning team use that have made them successful?
36Assessing Academic Skills You are a manager at a family-oriented restaurant chain. In the past year, two new restaurants have opened in the area. Both of them have done poorly, despite good locations. You must put together a task force to find ways to boost the new restaurants’ revenues. Decide where you would find people for the task force. Then compose a memo for senior management presenting your proposal and explaining your reasons for choosing these employees.