Presentation on theme: "1 Progressive Era 1900-1916 Expose the ills of society brought on by the Industrial Revolution and Big Government –urbanization –social disorder (labor)"— Presentation transcript:
1 Progressive Era Expose the ills of society brought on by the Industrial Revolution and Big Government –urbanization –social disorder (labor) –political corruption Write new laws to correct social problems Ideas based on Populism and goals of labor movement Government can be an instrument of social change
2 Muckrakers** Journalistic Voice of Progressives Investigative journalists – Expose corruption and other problems that needed to be addressed (no solutions) Profitable for magazines: McClures, Cosmopolitan, Colliers Upton Sinclairs The Jungle Lincoln Stephens The Shame of the Cities Ida Tarbells History of the Standard Oil Co. ** coined by T. Roosevelt
3 Goals of Progressives 1)End laissez-faire 2)End abuses of monopolistic power with antitrust legislation ex: Sherman Antitrust Act 3)Make government more responsive Government the vehicle to improved society 4)Limit power of party bosses end government abuse of power
4 Progressive Methods Rely on Scientific Data Value of Expert Opinion Use Collective Action Inform using Publications-- muckrakers Pressure on legislatures to pass laws
5 Could You? Explain the four goals of progressivism. Summarize progressive efforts to clean up government. Identify progressive efforts to reform state government, protect workers, and reform elections. Origins of Progressivism
6 Progressive Political Reforms Political parties corrupt and Undemocratic –Power must be diminished –People must be given more power »Australian (secret) ballot 1890 »Direct primary (nominate candidates)1902 »Initiative (propose laws) »Referendum (vote yes or no on laws) »Recall (call for re-election) »Direct election of Senators (17 th ) »Womens suffrage (19 th )
7 Progressive Social Reforms Temperance movement –WCTU –Anti-Saloon League 18 th amendment (1919) –Volstead Act enforced prohibition Mann Act (1910) (White Slave Traffic) Illegal to bring women into U.S. or across state lines for immoral purposes –Many states passed laws against prostitution
8 Social Gospel Movement Social responsibility for others well being my brothers keeper Church people doing humanitarian work -- YMCA PADS program - food pantry
9 Progressive Economic Reform Hepburn Act of 1906 : Regulate Rail Roads Mann-Elkins Act of 1910: –ICC - Communications The Food & Drug Administration (FDA) 1906 –Prohibited mislabeling –Sanitary Codes Tariff Reform - Lowered Tariffs on foreign goods (permitted competition)
10 Federal Reserve Act Weakness of existing system: No plan for times of financial crisis. Solution: Create 12 Federal Reserve Districts: A - L Purpose: Control the Nations Supply of Money
11 Robert M. LaFollette US Rep and US Senator Progressive Wisconsin governor Wisconsin a model for progressive reform laboratory of progressivism Wisconsin idea
12 Efforts to Clean Up City Government Toledo Reform - Samuel Golden Rule Jones –Lower utility rates –Minimum wage & More Parks. Commission System –Galveston, Tx –Take politics out of the process –Specialized professional ran departments. The City Manager System –Elected Boards of Commissioners –City manager elected by commissioners Reform!!!
14 National Political Reformers Teddy RooseveltHoward TaftWoodrow Wilson Progressive Era Presidents
15 McKinley Assassination VP, Age 42, young, active, reform minded president 1902 anthracite coal miner strike –Demands: 20%/8hr/union –Reality: 10%/9hr/no union Conservation –Newlands Reclamation Act (1902) Dams for irrigating 16 states –150 million acres reserved for public –National Conservation Commission established under Gifford Pinchot Northern Securities case (RR monopoly) –trustbuster Teddy Teddy RooseveltSquare Deal
16 Jack and the Giant Killer Trustbusting
17 Conservation John Muir
18 Teddy Roosevelt Consumer Protection Pure Food and Drug Act (1906) –forbade the manufacture, sale and transportion of adulterated or mislabeled foods and drugs. (No harmful chemicals and preservatives-labels required ) Meat Inspection Act (1906) –Federal inspection and regulation of minimum standards of sanitation.
19 Upton Sinclair A socialist trying to raise an outcry over working conditions under capitalism He wanted people to demand socialism from their government (do away with capitalism) Belief workers should control both the government and the means of production I aimed at the publics heart and by accident I hit them in the stomach.
20 Excerpt from The Jungle There was never the least attention paid to what was cut up for sausage; there would come all the way back from Europe old sausage that had been rejected, and that was moldy and white – it would be dosed with borax and glycerine and dumped into the hoppers and made over again for home consumption... There would be meat stored in great piles in rooms; and the water from the leaky roofs would drip over it, and thousands of rats would race about on it... These rats were a nuisance, and the packers would put poisoned bread out for them; they would die, and then rats, bread, and meat would go into the hoppers together.
22 Taft as the Big Guy Poor leader – not charismatic like TR Lost progressive support over tariff –Not low enough!! Yet, more antitrust suits than TR Yet, more conservation than TR And…groundwork for 16 th amendment
23 Rise of the Socialist Party 3 rd Party--developed in 1901 dedicated to working class. Platform: more radical reforms than Progressives public ownership or RR, utilities, oil, steel 18 socialists elected city mayors in 1911 presidential candidate Eugene Debs Peak in ,000 votes (6% of total) for president Most Americans feared socialism American workers satisfied with pay and union progress Rise of the Socialist Party
25 Election of 1904 Election of 1908 Election of 1912 TR-to-Wilson
26 Woody as President New Freedom Economic Reforms attack on the the triple wall of privilege Federal Reserve System (1913) –Regulate money supply Underwood Tariff (1913) –LOWERED TARIFFS ON 100+ ITEMS –GRADUATED INCOME TAX Clayton Antitrust Act (1914) –Strengthened Sherman Antitrust Act
27 Federal Trade Commission Act (1914) cease and desist orders for unfair business practices Adamson Act (1916) –8-hour work day for RR (new standard) Keating-Owens Act (1916) –no interstate trade if co. employs <14 yr olds Re-elected in 1916 He kept us out of war
28 Progressive amendments
29 Results of 1916 Election
30 African-Americans Ignored by main progressive movement Booker T. Washington Take a lower status temporarily Vocational training (Tuskegee Institute) W.E.B. DuBois Did not agree with BTW (leading the way backward) Talented Tenth AIM HIGHER!!!! Founded NAACP (1905) - fought racism
31 Womens Efforts Charlotte Perkins Gilman wrote Women and Economics (1898) –Child care centers; common dining area Margaret Sanger Planned Parenthood Florence Kelley (social worker) –10-hour day for women Carrie Chapman Catt –National American Woman Suffrage Association –Worked for passage of 19 th amendment
32 Woman Suffrage Before 1920
33 Evaluating the Progressive Era Successes ?? Failures ??