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© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.C Cisco Confidential Secure Wireless Plant ETSI Hells Kitchen. June 2008 Patrick Wetterwald Innovation Engineering Manager
2 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.C Cisco Confidential Sensor Networks are everywhere … with an endless scope of applications Enable New Knowledge Improve Productivity Healthcare Improve Food & H20 Energy Saving (I2E) Predictive maintenance Enhance Safety & Security Heal th Smart Home Defense High-Confidence Transport and assets tracking Intelligent Building
3 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.C Cisco Confidential Internet / Intranet L2N TrueMesh Wireless HART ISA SP100.11a Xmesh Znet MintRoute MultiHop LQI CENS Route Smart mesh TinyAODV Honeywell So far … WAS (Wait And See) - The current Trend gateway
4 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.C Cisco Confidential Early opportunities will be in Industrial, Transport and Retail; Consumer apps will come later Time (Years Out) #/Scale of Connected Devices L H M Third Wave Second Wave First Wave of Adopters ….. Transport Buildings Retail Healthcare Industrial Residential Source: Harbor Research Power
5 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.C Cisco Confidential Industrial Applications Process Control Maintenance & Operations Safety & Security Pressure Process temperature Chemical composition Energy usage Perimeter security Emergency lighting Machine health Tank level Equipment status Calibration Energy usage Poison gas concentration Emergency showers
6 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.C Cisco Confidential Savings of a 5-node installation: 700 conduit 3000 wire 2 guys, 2 full days of labor no trenching or surveying for buried cable Wireless truly is faster and cheaper. It just worked! Oil and Gas …this wireless technology enabled us to do things we simply could not do before, either because of cost or physical wiring obstacles. Through the trials, we found that Emerson's wireless approach is flexible, easy to use, reliable, and makes a step- change reduction in installed costs." Dave Lafferty BP Brandon Robinson EnCana
7 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.C Cisco Confidential Emerson Industrial Monitoring Emerson Process Management uses Dust Networks SmartMesh- XT products for their family of SmartWireless ® products, which includes sensors that measure temperature, pressure, and fluid level and a gateway to connect to legacy process control systems John Berra President Emerson Process Management "Wireless promises to enable us to put more monitoring in the plant at one-tenth the cost of wired technology."
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.C Cisco Confidential Wireless means interferences
9 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.C Cisco Confidential Industrial Facilities may have LOTS of Wireless This facility has: , , , RFID, 2.4 GHz video, walkie-talkies, etc … 4 sq. miles in size.
10 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.C Cisco Confidential A Secure Infrastructure for Multiple Applications
11 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.C Cisco Confidential Wireless Architecture Process Network Control Network Security Network Plant Network Wireless Field Devices Self-Organizing Mesh – TSMP – WirelessHart Emerson Controller Cisco Outdoor Industrial Mesh: Self-Organizing Mesh
12 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.C Cisco Confidential IEEE b/g Physical layer 14 channels, 5 Mhz channel spacing, 22 Mhz channel width Only 3 non-overlapping channels 1, 6 and 11 in North America 1, 7 and 13 in Europe a (5 GHz band) not considered here Cisco white paper: eng.cisco.com/Eng/TME/TSE/Mobility/Airespace_RF_Design_documentv0.1.doc
13 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.C Cisco Confidential IEEE DSSS Physical layer 16 channels, 5 Mhz channel spacing, 2 MHz channel width 250 kb/s data rate Physical channel usage Channel hopping permitted but not required Coordinated channel use permitted Dust uses both Channel hopping and coordination (between channels) Xbow uses only one static channel
14 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.C Cisco Confidential WLAN and in the 2.4 Ghz band (US) Frequency [Mhz] Transmitter power [dBm] 2462 Channel 1Channel 11Channel
15 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.C Cisco Confidential Radio co-existence issues radiated power is 100 fold higher than WLAN side-slopes always impact channels falling in the guard band between channels (in purple) are also impacted 15, 20, 25 and 26 in North America 15, 16, 21 and 22 in Europe
16 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.C Cisco Confidential Interferences simulations Annex E.4.3 in standard Results for non-coordinated/non hopping systems show that: The and radios can not be mounted in the same rack (distance < 2m) even with large frequency offset Low frequency offset requires 10s of meters separation Simulation results validated by Zensys study: DocMan/?docId=53&mode=DE
17 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.C Cisco Confidential Interference simulations
18 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.C Cisco Confidential ISA100.11a
19 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.C Cisco Confidential Alarms - Any class(human or automated action) Wireless worker - Classes 3 – 5(access is usually proxied) For security, logging/accountability, and cache consistency, wireless worker access is proxied through the central control system Exceptions may occur during commissioning and emergencies when local access may be required Usage classes of wireless data networks Safety Class 0 : Emergency action (always critical) Control Class 1: Closed loop regulatory control (often critical) Class 2: Closed loop supervisory control (usually non-critical) Class 3: Open loop control (human in the loop) NOTE: Batch levels* 3 & 4 could be class 2, class 1 or even class 0, depending on function *Batch levels as defined by ISA S88; where L3 = "unit" and L4 = "process cell" Monitoring Class 4: Flagging Short-term operational consequence (e.g., event-based maintenance) Class 5: Logging & downloading/uploading No immediate operational consequence (e.g., history collection, SOE, preventive maintenance) Importance of message timeliness increases Customer Requirements – SP100 Usage Classes
20 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.C Cisco Confidential Industrial monitoring and control Today: Competing standards, Mostly wired fieldbuses Ethernet/IP presence CIP / EtherNet Modbus/TCP Foundation Fieldbus HSE PROFInet Invensys/Foxboro FOXnet Wireless coming up WiHART One-wireless ISA100.11a
21 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.C Cisco Confidential ISA Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society is a non-profit technical society for engineers, technicians, businessmen, educators and students, who work, study or are interested in industrial automation. It was originally known as the Instrument Society of America. ISA provides leadership and education in the instrumentation and automation industries, assisting engineers, technicians, and research scientists, as well as many others, in keeping pace with the rapidly changing industry.
22 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.C Cisco Confidential ISA100.11a Working Group Charter This project addresses: low energy consumption devices, with the ability to scale to address large installations wireless infrastructure, interfaces to legacy infrastructure and applications, security, and network management requirements in a functionally scalable manner robustness in the presence of interference found in harsh industrial environments and with legacy systems coexistence with other wireless devices anticipated in the industrial work space interoperability of ISA100 devices
23 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.C Cisco Confidential ISA100.11a key features Hybrid FHSS DSSS reused from TSMP/WiHART Interference mitigation IPv6 and backbone Scalability, Scope Open protocols, COTS Network Convergence Extensible New PHYs (802.11LP, a CSS) New app layers (WiHART)
24 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.C Cisco Confidential ISA100.11a, IP technology and IETF ISA a endorsed 6LoWPAN IPv6 packets but not stack (ND, ICMP) And the transit link is not covered yet Really need draft-hui for better compressiondraft-hui Backbone Router 6LoWPAN Backbone Router draft Proposing an IPv6 based best practice To promote full IPv6 in ISA100.11a And WSN in general by contagion Have chairs and partners support Also I-D on fragment recoveryfragment recovery 6LowPAN sends up to 25 fragments Over multihop lossy radio => Need Flow Control and recovery
© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.C Cisco Confidential IP Networking Technology for Industrial Automation
26 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.C Cisco Confidential IP core Technology applies: The network as a standardized open system Cisco Confidential – Harbor Research Confidential Architecture Framework Connectivity , , 802.3, 802.3af, Provisioning and Configuration Device Identification, Location and Personalities Data Plane Network Forwarding Path- Filtering, QoS, Traffic Engineering Management Plane Discovery, Diagnostics, Inventory, Fault Isolation Device Security Authentication, Rogue Detection, Encryption Network Security Virus Protection, Intrusion Detection, Attack Mgmt Application Networking Eventing, Location, Data Replication and Virtualization Intelligence in the Network Scalability, Availability
27 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.C Cisco Confidential Virtualization needed Virtualization: 1 to Many or Many to 1 One network supports many virtual networks Virtual Office Domain Actual Campus LAN Process Control Network Virtual Plant Control Domain
28 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.C Cisco Confidential IP to the Sensors New services and applications M2M, remote management New Markets Process Control for factories Control and Automation for home, building, cities Larger Core Market Open standards to the sensor Lower cost More connected devices and new applications A wider Internet Shaping the future Internet of things Think of VoIP as a model… …but for a great many… …of tiny devices, everywhere.
29 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.C Cisco Confidential The golden path Vision Sensors and actuators using Internet technology Thats Billions of devices in the next 10 years Enabling new services and applications Steps Forming an alliance: IPSO (IP for Smart Objects) IP for automation open standards (ISA100.11a) Introduce sensors at IETF (6LoWPAN and ROLL) Apply standards where needed (home, building, power grid) Progress ROLL requirement WG docs 6LoWPAN RFC 4944 now rechartering for ND ISA100.11a targeted YE08
30 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.C Cisco Confidential IPSO (IP for Smart Objects) Objectives of the Alliance Promote the use of IP in Smart Objects by publishing white papers, case studies, issuing technology press releases, providing updates on standards progress and other supporting marketing activities Organize focused interoperability testing events But - the Alliance will NOT work on protocol specifications, algorithms, etc. – those activities will be done at the IETF and other standard organizations… !
31 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.C Cisco Confidential
32 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.C Cisco Confidential What is the HART protocol? (Highway Addressable Remote Transducer Protocol) Early implementation of Fieldbus. One of the most popular today. Uses 1200 baud Frequency Shift keying (FSK) based on the Bell 202 standard to superimpose digital information on the conventional 4-to- 2OmA analogue signal. Maintained by an independent organization, the HART Communication Foundation, the HART protocol is an industry standard developed to define the communications protocol between intelligent field devices and a control system. HART is the most widely used digital communication protocol in the process industries, with over eight million HART field instruments installed in over 100,000 plants worldwide. HART is supported by all of the major vendors of process field instruments HART preserves present control strategies by allowing traditional 4-to- 2OmA signals to co-exist with digital communication on existing two-wire loops.
33 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.C Cisco Confidential HART
34 © 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.C Cisco Confidential WirelessHART Specification Released for Approval New technology establishes wireless communication standard for process industry applications (Austin TX USA – 17 April 2007) - The HART Communication Foundation (HCF) announces the completion of draft specifications for Wireless HART Communication and their release to HCF member companies for review and approval. Wireless HART is the first open and interoperable wireless communication standard designed to address the critical needs of the process industry for reliable, robust and secure wireless communication in real world industrial plant applications. The combination of HART plus wireless is a major step for the industry. Wireless HART provides new capabilities for users to get information on process parameters and to monitor the performance of plant assets in areas that have previously been technically or cost-effectively difficult to achieve, says Ron Helson, HCF Executive Director. Wireless HART ushers in the next major technology life cycle and makes possible the next generation of HART-enabled productivity solutions.
© 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialIP in Smart Object Networks V1.7 1 IP in Smart Object Networks Jeff Apcar, Distinguished.
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