Presentation on theme: "Secure Wireless Plant ETSI Hell’s Kitchen. June 2008"— Presentation transcript:
1Secure Wireless Plant ETSI Hell’s Kitchen. June 2008 Patrick Wetterwald Innovation Engineering Manager
2Sensor Networks are everywhere … with an endless scope of applications DefenseEnergy Saving (I2E)Predictive maintenanceImprove ProductivityEnhance Safety & SecurityIntelligent BuildingEnable New KnowledgeHealthHigh-Confidence Transport and assets trackingImprove Food & H20HealthcareSmart Home
3So far … WAS (Wait And See) - The current Trend HoneywellWireless HARTTrueMeshgatewaygatewaygatewayZnetISA SP100.11agatewaygatewayInternet / IntranetSmartmeshgatewayMintRoutegatewayXmeshMultiHop LQIgatewaygatewaygatewayCENS RoutegatewaygatewayTinyAODVgatewaygatewayL2NL2N
4#/Scale of Connected Devices Early opportunities will be in Industrial, Transport and Retail; Consumer apps will come laterHResidentialTransportPower#/Scale of Connected DevicesMRetailBuildingsIndustrialHealthcareFirst Wave of Adopters …..Second WaveThird WaveL123Time (Years Out)Source: Harbor Research
6Oil and Gas Savings of a 5-node installation: 700’ conduit “…this wireless technology enabled us to do things we simply could not do before, either because of cost or physical wiring obstacles. Through the trials, we found that Emerson's wireless approach is flexible, easy to use, reliable, and makes a step-change reduction in installed costs."“Wireless truly is faster and cheaper.““It just worked!”Brandon RobinsonEnCanaDave LaffertyBPSavings of a 5-node installation: 700’ conduit3000’ wire2 guys, 2 full days of laborno trenching or surveying for buried cable
7Emerson Industrial Monitoring Emerson Process Management uses Dust Networks SmartMesh-XT products for their family of SmartWireless® products, which includes sensors that measure temperature, pressure, and fluid level and a gateway to connect to legacy process control systems"Wireless promises to enable us to put more monitoring in the plant at one-tenth the cost of wired technology."John BerraPresident Emerson Process Management
9Industrial Facilities may have LOTS of Wireless This facility has: , , , RFID, 2.4 GHz video, walkie-talkies, etc … 4 sq. miles in size.
10A Secure Infrastructure for Multiple Applications OSHA would like automatic notification of a safety shower being activated to go straight to Emergency Services so EMT’s can be deployed immediately to the correct location. In this plant there are over 1000 showers. Wiring costs would be enormousWireless sensors on a mesh network coming back into the system are the answer.WiMax link backhaul or Point to PointUp to 50KM, depending on bandwidth and environmental conditionsWiMax ‘bubble’ can surround entire plantApprox. 5KM RadiusWiFi ‘hotspots’ give mobility to workersLive Video, VoIP, Realtime Tracking, Remote Access to data/HMI etc.These integrated technologies allow for:Reduced personnel / less transportFaster response / interventionMore mobility / better communicationsSuperior remote capabilitiesSafer working environment
11Wireless Architecture Process NetworkControl NetworkSecurity NetworkPlant NetworkCisco Outdoor Industrial Mesh:Self-Organizing MeshEmerson ControllerSelf-Organizing Mesh– TSMP– WirelessHartWireless Field Devices
12IEEE802.11 b/g Physical layer Only 3 non-overlapping channels 14 channels, 5 Mhz channel spacing, 22 Mhz channel widthOnly 3 non-overlapping channels1, 6 and 11 in North America1, 7 and 13 in Europe802.11a (5 GHz band) not considered hereCisco white paper:
13IEEE802.15.4 DSSS Physical layer Physical channel usage 16 channels, 5 Mhz channel spacing, 2 MHz channel width250 kb/s data ratePhysical channel usageChannel hopping permitted but not requiredCoordinated channel use permittedDust uses both Channel hopping and coordination (between channels)Xbow uses only one static channel
14WLAN and 802.15.4 in the 2.4 Ghz band Transmitter power [dBm] -25-20-15-55101520252400241224372483.5(US)-10Frequency [Mhz]Transmitter power [dBm]2462Channel 1Channel 11Channel 611121314161718192122232426
15Radio co-existence issues radiated power is 100 fold higher thanWLAN side-slopes always impactchannels falling in the guard band between channels (in purple) are also impacted15, 20, 25 and 26 in North America15, 16, 21 and 22 in Europe
16Interferences simulations Annex E.4.3 in standardResults for non-coordinated/non hopping systems show that:The and radios can not be mounted in the same rack (distance < 2m) even with large frequency offsetLow frequency offset requires 10’s of meters separationSimulation results validated by Zensys study:
19Importance of message timeliness increases Customer Requirements – SP100 Usage ClassesUsage classes of wireless data networksImportance of message timeliness increasesSafetyClass 0 : Emergency action (always critical)ControlClass 1: Closed loop regulatory control (often critical)Class 2: Closed loop supervisory control (usually non-critical)Class 3: Open loop control (human in the loop)NOTE: Batch levels* 3 & 4 could be class 2, class 1 or even class 0, depending on function*Batch levels as defined by ISA S88; where L3 = "unit" and L4 = "process cell"MonitoringClass 4: FlaggingShort-term operational consequence (e.g., event-based maintenance)Class 5: Logging & downloading/uploadingNo immediate operational consequence (e.g., history collection, SOE, preventive maintenance)Alarms - Any class (human or automated action)Wireless worker - Classes 3 – 5 (access is usually proxied)For security, logging/accountability, and cache consistency, wireless worker access is proxied through the central control systemExceptions may occur during commissioning and emergencies when local access may be required
20Industrial monitoring and control Today:Competing standards,Mostly wired fieldbusesEthernet/IP presenceCIP / EtherNetModbus/TCPFoundation Fieldbus HSEPROFInetInvensys/Foxboro FOXnetWireless coming upWiHARTOne-wirelessISA100.11a
21ISAInstrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society is a non-profit technical society for engineers, technicians, businessmen, educators and students, who work, study or are interested in industrial automation.It was originally known as the Instrument Society of America.ISA provides leadership and education in the instrumentation and automation industries, assisting engineers, technicians, and research scientists, as well as many others, in keeping pace with the rapidly changing industry.
22ISA100.11a Working Group Charter This project addresses:low energy consumption devices, with the ability to scale to address large installationswireless infrastructure, interfaces to legacy infrastructure and applications, security, and network management requirements in a functionally scalable mannerrobustness in the presence of interference found in harsh industrial environments and with legacy systemscoexistence with other wireless devices anticipated in the industrial work spaceinteroperability of ISA100 devices
23ISA100.11a key features Hybrid FHSS DSSS IPv6 and backbone Extensible reused from TSMP/WiHARTInterference mitigationIPv6 and backboneScalability, ScopeOpen protocols, COTSNetwork ConvergenceExtensibleNew PHYs (802.11LP, a CSS)New app layers (WiHART)
24ISA100.11a, IP technology and IETF ISA a endorsed 6LoWPANIPv6 packets but not stack (ND, ICMP)And the transit link is not covered yetReally need draft-hui for better compressionBackbone Router 6LoWPANProposing an IPv6 based best practiceTo promote full IPv6 in ISA100.11aAnd WSN in general by contagionHave chairs and partners supportAlso I-D on fragment recovery6LowPAN sends up to 25 fragmentsOver multihop lossy radio=> Need Flow Control and recovery
25IP Networking Technology for Industrial Automation
26IP core Technology applies: The network as a standardized open “system” Architecture FrameworkApplication NetworkingEventing, Location, Data Replication and VirtualizationNetwork SecurityVirus Protection, Intrusion Detection, Attack MgmtDevice SecurityAuthentication, Rogue Detection, EncryptionManagement PlaneScalability, AvailabilityScalability, AvailabilityDiscovery, Diagnostics, Inventory, Fault IsolationIntelligence in the NetworkIntelligence in the NetworkCisco’s core technology can help drive the business innovation that will support all the intelligent information network “interactions” that occur at the “edge” of the network through converged instrumentation.Data PlaneNetwork Forwarding Path-Filtering, QoS, Traffic EngineeringProvisioning and ConfigurationDevice Identification, Location and PersonalitiesConnectivity802.11, , 802.3, 802.3af,Cisco Confidential – Harbor Research Confidential
27Virtualization needed Virtualization: 1 to Many or Many to 1One network supports many virtual networksProcess Control NetworkVirtualOffice DomainVirtualPlant Control DomainVirtualActual Campus LAN
28IP to the Sensors Think of VoIP as a model… …but for a great many… New services and applicationsM2M, remote managementNew MarketsProcess Control for factoriesControl and Automationfor home, building, citiesLarger Core MarketOpen standards to the sensorLower costMore connected devices and new applicationsA wider InternetShaping the futureInternet of thingsThink of VoIP as a model……but for a great many……of tiny devices, everywhere.
29The golden path Vision Steps Progress Sensors and actuators using Internet technologyThat’s Billions of devices in the next 10 yearsEnabling new services and applicationsStepsForming an alliance: IPSO (IP for Smart Objects)IP for automation open standards (ISA100.11a)Introduce sensors at IETF (6LoWPAN and ROLL)Apply standards where needed (home, building, power grid)ProgressROLL requirement WG docs6LoWPAN RFC 4944 now rechartering for NDISA100.11a targeted YE’08
30IPSO (IP for Smart Objects) Objectives of the AlliancePromote the use of IP in Smart Objects by publishing white papers, case studies, issuing technology press releases, providing updates on standards progress and other supporting marketing activitiesOrganize focused interoperability testing eventsBut - the Alliance will NOT work on protocol specifications, algorithms, etc. – those activities will be done at the IETF and other standard organizations… !30
32What is the HART protocol What is the HART protocol? (Highway Addressable Remote Transducer Protocol)Early implementation of Fieldbus. One of the most popular today.Uses 1200 baud Frequency Shift keying (FSK) based on the Bell 202 standard to superimpose digital information on the conventional 4-to-2OmA analogue signal.Maintained by an independent organization, the HART Communication Foundation, the HART protocol is an industry standard developed to define the communications protocol between intelligent field devices and a control system.HART is the most widely used digital communication protocol in the process industries, with over eight million HART field instruments installed in over 100,000 plants worldwide.HART is supported by all of the major vendors of process field instrumentsHART preserves present control strategies by allowing traditional 4-to-2OmA signals to co-exist with digital communication on existing two-wire loops.The HART Communications Protocol (Highway Addressable Remote Transducer Protocol) is an early implementation of Fieldbus, a digital industrial automation protocol.HART’s claim to fame is that it can communicate over legacy 4-20 mA (A "mA" is a milliampere, or 1/1000 of an ampere) analog instrumentation wiring, sharing the pair of wires used by older field instrumentation systems.According to some, due to the huge installed base of 4-20 mA systems throughout the world, the HART Protocol is one of the most popular industrial protocols today.Analog current loops are used for any purpose where a device needs to be either monitored or controlled remotely over a pair of conductors. Only one current level can be present at any time.4-20 mA is an analog electrical transmission standard for industrial instrumentation and communication. The signal is a current loop where 4 mA represents zero percent signal and 20 mA represents the one hundred percent signal.The "live zero" at 4 mA allows the receiving instrumentation to distinguish between a zero signal and a broken wire or a dead instrument. This standard was developed in the 1950s and is still widely used in industry today.Benefits of the 4-20 mA convention are that it is widely used by many manufacturers, relatively low-cost to implement, and it can reject many forms of electrical noise.The protocol was developed by Rosemount Inc. in the mid-1980s as proprietary digital communication protocol for their smart field instruments. Soon it evolved into HART. In 1986, it was made an open protocol. Since then, the capabilities of the protocol have been enhanced by successive revisions to the specification.There are two main operational modes of HART instruments: analog/digital mode, and multidrop mode.HART was built off the Bell 202 early communications standard.The “live zero” also allows low-power instruments to be directly powered from the loop, saving the cost of extra wires. Current loop is also much easier to understand and debug than more complicated digital fieldbuses.Using fieldbuses and solving related problems usually requires much more education and understanding than required by simple current loop solutions.Additional digital communication to the device can be added to current loop using HART Protocol. Digital process buses such as fieldbus and Profibus may replace analog current loops.
34WirelessHART™ Specification Released for Approval New technology establishes wireless communication standard for process industry applications(Austin TX USA – 17 April 2007) - The HART Communication Foundation (HCF) announces the completion of draft specifications for Wireless HART™ Communication and their release to HCF member companies for review and approval.Wireless HART is the first open and interoperable wireless communication standard designed to address the critical needs of the process industry for reliable, robust and secure wireless communication in real world industrial plant applications.“The combination of HART plus wireless is a major step for the industry. Wireless HART provides new capabilities for users to get information on process parameters and to monitor the performance of plant assets in areas that have previously been technically or cost-effectively difficult to achieve,” says Ron Helson, HCF Executive Director. “Wireless HART ushers in the next major technology life cycle and makes possible the next generation of HART-enabled productivity solutions.”