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1: Web Services Architecture

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Presentation on theme: "1: Web Services Architecture"— Presentation transcript:

0 Ubiquitous Sensor Network Technology
1: Web Services Architecture Ubiquitous Sensor Network Technology Prof. Ki-Hyung Kim Ajou University, Korea

1 1: Web Services Architecture
Contents Standardization of Wireless Sensor Networks IETF, SP100, WirelessHART, ZigBee, IEEE 802 Overview IP-USN Research and Development

2 Overview of Wireless Sensor Network Technologies
Internet L2N TrueMesh Wireless HART ISA SP100.11a Xmesh Znet MintRoute MultiHop LQI CENS Route Smartmesh TinyAODV Honeywell


4 IEEE 802.15 Task Group SC wng TG 1 TG 2 TG 3 TG 4 TG 5 TG6 TG 3a TG 4a
< > WG for WPAN Secretary Publicity Committee Task Groups Study Groups SC wng TG 1 TG 2 TG 3 TG 4 TG 5 TG6 TG 3a TG 4a TG 3b TG 4b Standing Committee TG 3c TG 4c finish Withdrawn TG 4d Working TG TG4e

5 IEEE 802 WG15 Overview IEEE 15th working group of the IEEE 802 which specializes in Wireless PAN (Personal Area Network) standards TG1 : Bluetooth based WPAN (finished) TG2 : Coexistence of WLAN and WPAN (finished) TG3 : High Rate WPAN (finished) TG3a : TG3 based Alternative PHY (withdraw) TG3b : TG3 based MAC Amendment (finished) TG3c : TG3 based Millimeter Wave Alternative PHY (in progress) TG4 : Low rate WPAN (finished) TG4a : TG4 Alternative PHY (finished) TG4b : TG4 based Revision (finished) TG4c : TG4 based Chinese amendment PHY (in progress) TG4d : TG4 based Japan amendment PHY (in progress) TG5 : TG3 & TG4 based Mesh networking (in progress) TG6 : Body Area Network (in progress)

6 ZigBee

7 Zigbee Organization

8 Present Status of ZigBee Alliance
Specification : ZigBee Pro (2007) Balloted Specification PRO Features Features removed from ZigBee-2006 in PRO CSKIP address assignment Tree routing (table routing remains) Features added to PRO Mesh network routing Stochastic address assignment/address conflict resolution Many to one routing/Source routing Multicast Frequency Agility Fragmentation/Re-assembly Link Status/Symmetric routes

9 Present Status of ZigBee Alliance
ZigBee Network Topologies and Routing Cluster tree networks provide for a beaconing multi-hop network Mesh network routing permits path formation from any source device to any destination device via a path formed by routing packets through neighbors ZigBee Routing employs both Mesh Routing and Cluster Tree Routing Routing by default will employ mesh and can fall back to cluster tree if a route error is generated on the packet

10 Advantages of IP-based Sensor Networks
상호운용성(Interoperability) 인터넷상의 다른 디바이스 (WiFi, Ethernet, WiBro, Wireless Mesh, HSDPA 등으로 연결가능) 이미 검증된 보안(Security) 기술 인증(Authentication), 접근제어(access control), and 방화벽(firewall) Network design 이미 검증된 응용계층 모델 및 서비스 (Established Application model and service 소켓 API 기반의 센서 개발 DNS, SLP 통합 네트워크 관리기술 (Integrated Network Management) Ping, Traceroute, SNMP등 전달계층 프로토콜 (Transport Protocols) End-to-End Reliable streaming

11 6lowpan Node Architecture
1: Web Services Architecture 6lowpan Node Architecture SNMP Mngmt Service Naming & Discovery Sensor App Socket-lite API TCP/UDP IP ICMP Adaptation Layer Fragmentation /Reassembly Commissioning & Bootstrapping ND Optimization Mesh Routing IEEE (a,b) Sensor Node Hardware

12 Standardization Activities in IETF

13 6lowpan Node Architecture
1: Web Services Architecture 6lowpan Node Architecture SNMP Mngmt Service Naming & Discovery Sensor App Socket-lite API TCP/UDP IP ICMP Adaptation Layer Fragmentation /Reassembly Commissioning & Bootstrapping ND Optimization Mesh Routing IEEE (a,b) Sensor Node Hardware

14 6lowpan Standardization Activities
Rechartering Stage 1. Produce "6LoWPAN Bootstrapping and 6LoWPAN IPv6 ND Optimizations“ to define limited extensions to IPv6 Neighbor Discovery [RFC4861] for use specifically in low-power networks. This document (or documents) will define how to bootstrap a 6LoWPAN network and explore ND optimizations such as reusing the structure of the network (e.g., by using the coordinators), and reduce the need for multicast by having devices talk to coordinators (without creating a single point-of-failure, or changing the semantics of the IPv6 ND multicasts). This document or documents will be a proposed standard. 2. Produce "Problem Statement for Stateful Header Compression in 6LoWPANs" to document the problem of using stateful header compression (2507, ROHC) in 6LoWPANs. Currently 6LoWPAN only specifies the use of stateless header compression given the assumption that stateful header compression may be too complex. This document will determine if the assumption is correct and describe where the problems are. This document will be informational.

15 6lowpan Standardization Activities
3. Produce "6LoWPAN Architecture" to describe the design and implementation of 6LoWPAN networks. This document will cover the concepts of "Mesh Under" and "Route Over", design issues such as operation with sleeping nodes, network components (both battery-and line-powered), addressing, and IPv4/IPv6 network connections. As a spin-off from that document, “ 6LoWPAN Routing Requirements" will describe 6LoWPAN-specific requirements on routing protocols used in 6LoWPANs, addressing both the "route-over" and "mesh-under" approach. Both documents will be informational. 4. Produce "Use Cases for 6LoWPAN" to define, for a small set of applications with sufficiently unique requirements, how 6LoWPANs can solve those requirements, and which protocols and configuration variants can be used for these scenarios. The use cases will cover protocols for transport, application layer, discovery, configuration and commissioning. This document will be informational.

16 6lowpan Standardization Activities
5. Produce "6LoWPAN Security Analysis" to define the threat model of 6LoWPANs, to document suitability of existing key management schemes and to discuss bootstrapping/installation/commissioning/setup issues. This document will be referenced from the "security considerations" of the other 6LoWPAN documents. This document will be informational.


18 RL2N WG Charter: Overview Work Items
Produce use cases documents for Industrial, Connected Home, Building and urban application networks. Describe the use case and the associated routing protocol requirements. The documents will progress in collaboration with the 6lowpan Working Group (INT area). 
 Survey the applicability of existing protocols to L2Ns: analyze the scaling and characteristics of existing protocols and identify whether or not they meet the routing requirements of the L2Ns applications. Existing IGPs, MANET, NEMO, DTN routing protocols will be part of evaluation.

19 RL2N WG Charter: Overview Work Items (2)
3. Specification of routing metrics used in path calculation. This includes static and dynamic link/nodes attributes required for routing in L2Ns. 4. Provide an architectural framework for routing and path selection at Layer 3 (Routing for L2N Architecture)
 Decide whether the L2Ns routing protocol require a distributed, centralized path computation models or both.
 Decide whether the L2N routing protocol requires a hierarchical routing approach. 5. Produce a security framework for routing in L2Ns.

20 Interaction with other WGs
6lowpan: working on L2Ns over MANET: we may be end up using some (adapted) MANET protocols if the WG think that they satisfy the requirements Other industry forums and SDOs. Zigbee, ITU, Bluetooth,

21 Wireless HART

22 Industrial Automation Background
Very important functionality 60 million installed process control sensors 4 million shipping per year ~50% are “smart” today – wired networks HART Most popular wired sensor network protocol HART 1: 1,200 baud digital comm over 4-20mA loops Wireless HART Ratified as a part of HART7 September 2007 based Announced vendors: ABB, Emerson, Siemens, … Multi-hop Mesh networking SP100 wireless Draft standard in 2008 Adopted 6LoWPAN, but defining own routing, transport Wireless HART and SP100 are a hybrid of circuit and packet switched IEEE E WG created to standardize

23 Examples of Data flows Low frequency data collection
1/s to 1/hour; typically < 1/min Latency comparable to sample interval Typically <50B Some time series >10kB Alarms <50B Log file upload 1/day, 1/year 10kB ..1MB Human diagnostic query/response Mean latency important Feedback control Max latency important Latency from minutes to <1ms (infeasible w/ 15.4 radios) Often all of these will be operating in different parts of the network

24 ISA SP100.11a

25 Intro to ISA100 ISA100 – Wireless Systems for Industrial Automation and Process Control ISA100.11a - Wireless sensor and controls network - Utilizing - DLL provides mesh network using hybrid CSMA and TDMA - Using 6LoWPAN/IPv6/UDPv6 and TFTP - Backbone router inter-connects DLL subnets

26 ISA100.11 reference model DLL subnet Backbone Router DLL subnet
Gateway (ALG)‏ DLL subnet Plant Network System Manager Security Manager

27 Routing to a Gateway on Backbone
The SP100.11a network is a single link. Link local addresses can be used to reach any mote.

28 Multi-floor building example with single DLL subnet

29 Packet flow to the gateway with IPv6

30 Transit Network Plant Network Binding update A G/W Backbone Router 1 A Security Manager NA(A) : BR1’s Backbone Router NS(A) multicast System Manager Binding update NA(A): BR2’s Backbone Router 2 B NS(A) unicast B A via BR2 A via BR1 DLL subnet ISA100.11a Network

31 IP-USN Research and Development in Korea

32 Major Characteristics of IP-USN
High Interoperability Seamless Connectivity to Internet (IPv4/v6 support) WiFi, Wireless Mesh, Ethernet, IEEE , RIP, OSPF High Reliability Automatic Faulty Router Detection and Network Recovery MAC-assisted End-to-End Transport Protocol (mTCP) Automatic State Restoration after Reboot Multi-Router Support High Scalability Multi-Router Interworking Scalable Tree-based Routing Protocol (HiLow) Mesh Routing Protocol Easy Configuration Automatic Neighbor Discovery IPv6 Autoconfiguration Plug & Sensing Capability Management SNMP-based Management, ping Web-based Monitoring and Management

33 High Interoperability
Seamless Connectivity to Internet (IPv6/v4) Support various interfaces WIFI, Ethernet, Wireless Mesh, IEEE Support Internet standard routing protocol RIP, OSPF Interoperability test with KOREN 대구 광주 대전 수원 서울 2001:2b8:f2:2::4 2001:2b8:f2:2::3 DWDM/OADM ATM Switch Router Gigabit Switch 35Gbps 2.5Gbps 155Mbps

34 High Reliability Multi-Router Interworking
Automatic Fault Detection and Network Recovery of 6lowpan routers and 6lowpan nodes

35 Bootstrapping and Commissioning Protocol with Multiple Routers

36 Bootstrapping and Commissioning Protocol with Multiple Routers
Sensor node list on the console of multiple routers

37 High Reliability (2) Reduce redundant re-transmission with MAC support
MAC-assisted End-to-End Transport Protocol (mTCP) Reduce redundant re-transmission with MAC support Server 6lowpan Internet

38 High Scalability (1) Wireless Subnet Large scale sensor network design
Wireless Subnet A Wireless Subnet B Wireless Subnet C Wireless Subnet D

39 Scalable Tree-based routing protocol (HiLow)
High Scalability (2) Scalable Tree-based routing protocol (HiLow) No routing table required Simple Implementation Robust 1-hop tree restructuring to link failures Short-cut routing support

40 Easy Configuration DHCP support
Automatic neighbor discovery (IPv6 address autoconfiguration, short address assignment, Application profile) Plug and Sense (PnS) Support Main technology in Web-based Sensor Service Portal Zero-Configuration to connect to the Internet and my Server Plug and Sense support in especially DHCP environment User Permission Management

41 IP-USN Network Management System

42 SNMP based Network Management
1: Web Services Architecture SNMP based Network Management 6LoWPAN Management Network Monitoring Network Status Monitoring PAN ID, Channel Network Size (Number of Nodes, IPv6 Prefix information) Topology Monitoring Network Topology Monitoring Neighbor Table Information Routing Table Information Sensor Node Management Node Information 16bit, 64bit, IPv6 Address Device type, Sensor type, H/W version S/W profile, OS, MAC/PHY, Adaptation version Battery status 6lowpan

43 Web-based Sensor Network Management
Configuration Management Topology Management Device Management Topology Registration Device Registration Fault Management Security Management User Management* Permission Management* Power Management** Performance Management* Accounting Management**

44 Web-based Sensor Network Monitoring
Sensor Data Monitoring Realtime Data Monitoring History Data Monitoring General Log Alarm Log

45 IP-USN MIB (1/3)  LowPan Module  LowPanRoutingTable Module File
Variable Description lowPan lowpanPanId 센서노드가 속한 PAN의 번호 lowpanChannel 센서 노드가 사용하는 채널 lowpanRoutingAlgorithm 현재 사용중인 라우팅 알고리즘 lowpanCompression 패킷 압축 여부 lowpanSupportExtended EUI64주소를 이용한 라우팅 가능여부  LowPanRoutingTable Module File Variable Description lowPanRoutingTable lowpanRouteEUI64Address 라우팅 엔트리를 소유한 센서 노드의 EIU64 주소 lowpanRouteID 라우팅테이블에서 해당 Entry의 순차 번호 lowpanRouteDestAddress 최종 목적지주소 lowpanRouteNextHopAddress 최종 목적지를 위한 다음 목적지주소

46 IP-USN MIB (2/3)  LowPanNodeInfo Table Module File Variable
Description lowPanNodeInfoTable lowpanNodeEUI64Address 노드의 EUI64 주소 lowpanNodeAssociationPermit 센서노드가 티 노드의 Association을 받아 들일수 있는지에대한 값 lowpanNodeMaxChildren 최대로 가질수 있는 자식 노드의 수 lowpanNodeBeaconOrder 비콘 오더 lowpanNodeSuperframeOrder 슈퍼 프레임 오더 lowpanNodeBattery 배터리 상태 (현재는 0x64 고정) lowpanNodeHwVersion 하드웨어 버전 lowpanNodeOsVersion 소프트웨어 버전 lowpanNodeRtEntryCount 센서노드가 가질수 있는 최대 라우팅 엔트리의 수 lowpanNodeNtEntryCount 센서노드가 가질수 있는 최대 네이버 엔트리의 수 lowpanNodeMaxHopCount 패킷의 TTL 범위 lowpanNodeRole 노드의 타입 (0: 코디네이터 1:라우터노드 2 : 브릿지 노드) lowpanNodeIp6Addr 노드에 할당된 IPV6주소 lowpanNodeShortAddress 노드에 할당된 ShortAddress lowpanNodeAlive 노드에 Alive 상태

47 IP-USN MIB (3/3)  LowPanNodeInfo Table Module File Variable
Description lowPanNeighborTable lowpanNeighborEUI64Address 네이버 엔트리를 소유한 센서 노드의 EIU64 주소 lowpanNeighborPanID 네이버의 PAN ID lowpanNeighborNEUI64Address 네이버의 EUI64 주소 lowpanNeighborShortAddress 네이버의 ShortAddress lowpanNeighborDeviceType 네이버의 Device Type lowpanNeighborPermitJoin 네이버의 PermitJoin lowpanNeighborLogicalChannel 네이버의 Logical 채널 lowpanNeighborValidated 네이버 Validated

48 Management with Commercial SNMP NMS System

49 Web-based USN Management & Monitoring

50 Design of IP-USN Router/Node
­ 50 ­

51 6lowpan Node Architecture
1: Web Services Architecture 6lowpan Node Architecture SNMP Mngmt Service Naming Sensor APP TCP / UDP ICMP Adaptation Layer IP Socket-lite-API IEEE (a,b) Sensor Node Hardware Fragmentation / Reassembly Commissioning & Bootstrapping ND Optimization Mesh Routing

52 6lowpan Router Architecture
1: Web Services Architecture 6lowpan Router Architecture Ethernet MAC PHY Wibro MAC PHY WiFi IPv4 & IPv6 Dual LoWPAN MAC / PHY Internet IP-USN Adaptation 내부 압축 ND Proxy GAR MA 외부 SSLP TA

53 Specification of IP-USN Router
HW Spec SW Spec Main Core AT91SAM9260, 180MHz /32bit IP-USN Sensor Node Device Driver Memory 16MB Serial Data Flash / 64MB SDRAM WiBro Device Driver Ethernet Port 10/100Base-T 1 Port WiBro Connection Manager WiBro Module WiBro Module, USB Type USIM Card Slot WiFi Device Driver WiFi Module b/g, USB Type USB Host Device Driver Console RS Port Debug Serial Port RS Port, Internal Power 5VDC Input Battery NiMH 2200mAh Battery Pack Low Battery detection circuit 기타 Atmel Internal Watch Dog Dimensions 167(W)X140(L)X35.5 (T) (mm) ­ 53 ­ 53

54 WiBro Specification WiBro Specification Standards
IEEE e Mobile WiMAX / WiBro support IEEE & IEEE e-2005 PHY IOT Profiles TDD, 8.75Mhz BandWith, OFDMA MIMO(2X1) MISO( 2 Receiver and single Transmitter) and H-ARQ RX Diversity Support for Mobile WiMAX / WiBro Frequency 2.3GHz ~ 2.4 GHz Max. Throughput Downlink : 10 Mbps (max) Uplink : 4 Mbps (max) Host Interface Interface USB2.0 High Speed or 4-Bit mode SDIO Interface Connector Board to Board 60Pin connector 54

55 Outlook of IP-USN Router

56 Block Diagram of IP-USN Router

57 WiBro 다이어그램

58 PCB Layout of IP-Router
WiBro Module Block Ethernet Block WiFi Block IP-USN Block WiBro UISM Slot MPU Block

59 Service discovery with SLP(Service Location Protocol)

60 SLP-based Service discovery
Pervasiveness Time Static Discovery Service - X.500, LDAP Discovery in LAN - JINI, UPnP, SLP, Salutation Discovery in Large-scale network - Structured Architecture (e.g. DHT) Context-aware Discovery - Context-based ranking Semantic Discovery - Semantic representation & Matching Discovery in ad-hoc Network - Mobility, Minimizing cost

61 1: Web Services Architecture
Contents Standardization of Wireless Sensor Networks IETF, SP100, WirelessHART, ZigBee, IEEE 802 Overview IP-USN Research and Development

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