2Why it is important…How does the point of view affect your responses to the characters?How is your response influenced by how much the narrator knows and how objective he or she is?Narrators are not always trustworthy. It is up to you to determine what is the truth and what is not.
3ObjectiveWith the objective point of view, the writer tells what happens without participating in the story's action and dialogue. The narrator never discloses anything about what the characters think or feel, remaining a detached, objective observer.
4ExampleThink of the objective POV as a camera recording what is said and done during a specific period of time. We cannot know what happens before or after the camera is turned on and we cannot read people’s mind while they are on camera.Plays, drama
5First PersonIn the first person point of view, the narrator does participate in the action of the story. When reading stories in the first person, we need to realize that what the narrator is recounting might not be the objective truth. We should question the trustworthiness of the accounting.
6ExampleFirst person point of view uses "I" or "We." First person is often used when someone is stating an opinion or sharing a feeling.I like my freshly-painted bedroom so much that I want to jump for joy!
7Second PersonSecond person point of view uses the word "You." Second person is a good choice when giving directions or anytime you're speaking directly to someone. Second person is almost never used to tell a story.
8Example"You should really come and join the group because you would probably like it a lot."
9Third PersonHere the narrator does not participate in the action of the story as one of the characters.Third person point of view uses "He," "She," or "They." Sometimes "it" is used when talking about a thing instead of a person.
10ExampleSally rode home as fast as she could. Then she jumped off her bike and ran into the house to see what was going on.
11Third Person LimitedA non-participant narrator whose omniscient knowledge is limited to one character, either major or minor, has a limited omniscient point of view.
12ExampleMarco felt like he had done something good for the community. He felt like a helper and wanted to do more good things to assist those in need. But how did everybody else feel? How did Hannah and Zach feel about their work? He would have to talk to them to find out.
13Third Person Omniscient A non-participant narrator who knows everything about all the characters is all knowing, or omniscient.
14ExampleMarco felt like he had done something good for the community. Marco wouldn't know it until he talked to them, but Hannah and Zach felt the same way, too. Hannah had not been able to sleep. She was excited at the thought of expanding their project. She was sure they could provide even more toys for the children next year! Zach was already planning ways to raise more money and get more people involved. He had even had a dream about how to do it!
15Steps to finding POV… Check the pronouns Look for feelings Question past and futureCount the characters the narrator knows about
16CharactersPerson, animal, or like who takes part in the action of a literary work
17Types of Characters Protagonist: main character Antagonist: opposes the main characterFoil: character who highlights/emphasizes the protagonist by CONTRAST
18Types of CharactersStatic: character whose values, morals, opinions remain the same throughout the storyDynamic: undergo a major change in values, morals, opinions during the story
19Types of CharactersRound: are convincing, true to life, have many different and possibly contradictory personality traits.Flat: are stereotyped, shallow, and often symbolic, and have only one or two traits
20CharacterizationDirect: the narrator states something about a characterJill is smart. Bob is tall.Indirect: author reveals information about a character that requires us to make a judgmentJill is our valedictorian.Bob hit is head on the door frame.
21Methods of indirect characterization ThinksFeelsActsSaysOthers’ reactions
22What are you looking for? Traits: a special quality or something about someone’s personalityMotivation: what causes someone to act in a certain wayConflict: when characters have different motivation or goals
23What are you looking for? Point of View: the side from which a story is told.Relationships: the connection of people in friendship, family, work, school, or other activities