2European Middle Ages Early / Post-Classical “the Dark Ages” disorder, disunity, despairHigh Middle AgesRise of crown, commerce & citiesLate Middle Ages3 disasters: church scandal, years war & BLACK DEATH
3Post-Classical/ Early Middle Ages 550 – 900 CE – fragmented & chaoticCatholic church only source of intellectual development & literacyChurch powerManorialismFeudalism
5The Franks tribes unified (by Clovis) Converted to Christianity (by Clovis)Muslims/Moors halted at Tours (732; Charles Martel)Aided the PopeCharlemagne - strong but brief EmpireCrowned Holy Roman EmperorSplit / Viking invasions/ disunity
6The Angles & SaxonsInvaded Britain (which was defended by “King Arthur”?)Small kingdomsAdopted Christianity 7th century9th century – Alfred the GreatDanes / VikingsBecame known as England (land of the Angles)
7Transition Europeans were newer to “civilization” than the Middle East Decline of Islamic and Mongol influenceImportant changes in West…Horse collar & stirrups – strengthened agric & military/ agricultural changes – 3 field system; warming periodDecline of Viking invasions – more stability & pop growth
8The Rise of a Medieval Urban Culture High Middle AgesThe Rise of a Medieval Urban Culture
9Feudal Monarchies and Political Advances primogenitureHoly Roman EmperorCapetian kingsNorman conquestMore stability
1110th century – out of the ruins of the Frankish empire W. - France:new hereditary monarchy established:Hugh Capet – Capetian dynastyE. - German States: Holy Roman EmpireDevelops as an “elected” emperor under the PopeGreater Stability…
12Limited Government Church main authority Aristocrats vs. monarchical power /Magna Carta1st English parliamentThree key estatesConflicts church &KingsRivalries – temporal vs “spiritual” authorityfeudal rights vs national states/central authority
21Role of ItalyItalian towns had not decayed to same degree as rest of W. EuropeItaly’s location – trade citiesCrusades resulted in trade of goods – luxury items from the east & middle eastConnection between Mediterranean trade system & rest of Europe
22Flanders Belgium and N. France Textile capital of Europe; woolen industryCenter of trade in European Northern Coast: across France, down Rhine River and across English Channel
24Hanseatic League Trading towns along Baltic Coast 70 member cities Established permanent trading routesTraded in fur, timber, fish, grainViolators punished by boycott or war
25Medieval Fairs Champagne (France) had the best known fairs lasted 4-6 weeks and were held several times per year
26Role of Medieval FairsGoods from all over world were exchanged (at first by barter then by money) at fairsTrade items from East: spices, medicine, perfume, dyes, gems, silk, cotton, linen, gold, silver, ivoryTrade items from Middle East: textiles, rugs, grains, fruitAnd exchange of ideas!
27Development of Money Economy led to decline of feudal system & emergence of market economyCapital: wealth earned, accumulated and investedCoinage – silver, then goldBanking - Italian “banca” = money changers tableEuropean traders less wealthy than Islamic counterparts
28Growth of Cities and Towns Resulted from:the revival of tradeserfs leaving manor for opportunitiesstrong monarchiesDeveloped Where?Near well-traveled roads, transfer points or waterways
29Conditions in Towns: Crowded (epidemics spread quickly) filthy (sewage/stench of animals)violent, noisy (don’t go out after dark!)But provided opportunities...
30Guilds: Business Organization of Merchants and Artisans set quality standardloans to membersill / disabled membersProtected businessesset prices /conditionsprohibited competitionsupervised training…
31Apprentice System of Craft Guild Apprentice: worked for master without pay to learn skillsJourneyman: worked for daily pay; submitted work to guild for approval to become master; could work in other townsMaster: artisans who owned their own shops & tools & employed less-skilled workers as helpers
32Charters: kings & nobles granted charters to townspeople - documents that gave them right to control their own affairs – not under local lord
33Universities DevelopBegin as learning guilds (an association of people organized for the purpose of learning and teaching)Limited to specific subjects (ex: theology, law, medicine)Academic degrees develop (B.A., M.A. PhD)
34ScholasticismIntellectual movement that attempted to reconcile faith & reasonFaith = Church teachingsReason = Aristotle’s logicScholastic philosphers:
35Thomas Aquinas 13th century Italian priest Wrote Summa Theologica reason was God’s giftchurch doctrine could be supported through logicProposed 5 logic proofs of the existence of God...
36Proof #1: Argument of Motion Everything is in motion and what is in motion must be moved by some mover. Thomas concluded that reason demands that there must have been a “first mover” or “unmoved mover” and this is God.
37Vernacular Literature Vernacular: language of everyday speechpeople spoke the language that had developed in their own countries from Latin or German roots (Eng, Fr, Ger, Ital, Span)each kingdom a distinct identityliterature more accessible
38Vernacular WritersDante Alighieri: The Divine Comedy, epic poem in Italian that describes an imaginary journey through hell, purgatory and heaven
39Geoffrey Chaucer: Canterbury Tales English narrative poems that described a group of pilgrims who tell stories to amuse one another on their way to Thomas Beckett’s shrine
40Gothic ArchitectureCharacteristics: walls high & thin, flying buttresses supported weight of roof, large stained-glass windows, pointed archesSymbolism:ground plan in shape of a crosswith high walls and pointed arches, everything appeared to be “reaching towards heaven”
45The Rise of a Middle Class leads to the decline of Medieval Feudalism The kings will use the Middle Class to weaken the nobility / aristocracyrevival of trade will lead to the more rapid exchange of everything – including the Black Death
67Global Connections: 1450 and the World Changes and continuities were presentMuslims still activeMongols offer new contactsDecline Mongols returns attention to Indian Ocean tradeSoutheast Asia drawn into tradeAfrican merchants connected to Middle East