Presentation on theme: "Environmental Problems, Their Causes, and Sustainability"— Presentation transcript:
1Environmental Problems, Their Causes, and Sustainability Chapter 1
2Question #1: What are the 6 major themes of this book?
3Answer Central Theme: Sustainability Subthemes: Natural Capital Natural Capital DegradationSolutionsTrade-OffsIndividuals Matter…. Sound Science
4Question #2: What is an environmentally stable society?
5Living More Sustainability EnvironmentEcologyEnvironmental scienceEnvironmentalismSustainability
6Path to Sustainability A Pa t h t o S u s t a i n a b i l i t yNatural CapitalNatural CapitalDegradationSolutionsTrade-OffsIndividualsMatterS o u n d S c i e n c eFig. 1-2, p. 7
7ExampleImagine you win $1 million in a lottery. If you invest this money and earn 10% interest a year, you will have sustainable income of $100,000. if you spend $200,000 per year, your $1 million will be gone early in the 7th year.Even if you spent $110,000 a year you would be bankrupt in the 18th year.
8Natural Capital Earth’s natural capital Capital Financial income Biological incomeDegrading capitalFig. 1-3, p. 7
9Natural Capital Stepped Art Fig. 1-3, p. 7 NATURAL CAPITAL = NATURAL RESOURCESAirWaterSoilLandLife (biodiversity)Nonrenewable minerals (iron, sand)Renewable energy(sun, wind, water flows)Nonrenewable energy (fossil fuels, nuclear power)+NATURAL SERVICESNATURAL CAPITALAir purificationWater purificationSoil renewalNutrient recyclingFood productionPollinationGrassland renewalForest renewalWaste treatmentClimate ControlPopulation control (species interactions)Pest control
10Solutions to Environmental Problems Trade-offs (compromises)Individuals matterSound scienceEnvironmentally sustainable societies
11Question #3: How fast is the human population increasing?
12World Population Exponential growth Poverty Extinction and biodiversityClimate changesGood news: possible solutionsFig. 1-1, p. 1
13Black Death—the Plague Agricultural revolution World Population?Billions of peopleBlack Death—the PlagueTimeHunting andgatheringAgricultural revolutionIndustrialrevolutionFig. 1-1, p. 1
14Human Population Growth World totalDevelopingcountriesPopulation (billions)DevelopedcountriesYearFig. 1-5, p. 9
15Global Outlook Percentage 19 Population 81 0.1 Population growth 1.5 of World's19Population810.1Populationgrowth1.5Wealth andincome8515Resourceuse881275Pollutionand waste25Developed countriesDeveloping countriesFig. 1-4, p. 9
16Question #4: What is the difference between economic growth and economic development?
17EconomicsEconomic growth – increase in the capacity of a country to provide people with goods and services.Gross Domestic Product (GDP) – the annual market value of all goods and services produced by all firms and organizations in a country.Per capita GDP – the GDP divided by the total population midyear.
18EconomicsEconomic development – the improvement of human living standards by econoic growthDeveloped and developing countriesWhat is the difference?
19Economic Development Fig. 1-6, p. 10 Trade-OffsEconomic DevelopmentGood NewsBad NewsGlobal life expectancy doubled since 1950Infant mortality cut in half since 1955Food production ahead of population growth since 1978Air and water pollution down in most developed countries since 1970Number of people living in povertydropped 6% since 1990Life expectancy 13 years less indeveloping countries than indeveloped CountriesInfant mortality rate in developing countries over 9times higher than in developedcountriesHarmful environmental effects ofagriculture may limit future foodproductionAir and water pollution levels inmost developing countries too highHalf of world's workers trying tolive on less than $2 (U.S.) per dayFig. 1-6, p. 10
20Question #5: What are the main types of pollution, and what can you do about pollution?
21Resources Perpetual – renewed continuously SOLAR EnergyRenewable – replenished fairly rapidlyForests, grasslands, wild animals, fresh water, and fresh airNonrenewable – exist in a fixed quantity on EarthCoal, oil, natural gas, salt, clay, sand, etc
22Nonrenewable Resources Energy resourcesMetallic mineral resourcesNonmetallic mineral resourcesEconomic depletionRecycling and reuse
23Perpetual and Renewable Resources Sustainable yield – a renewable resource can be reused but never lose its available supply.Environmental degradation – exceeding the natural replacement rate of resources.Tragedy of the Commons – “If I don’t use it someone else will…” mentality
25Per Capita Ecological Footprint Total Ecological Footprint (Hectares per person)CountryUnited StatesThe NetherlandsIndia126.96.36.199Total Ecological Footprint(Hectares)CountryUnited StatesThe NetherlandsIndia3 billionhectares62 million hectares880 millionhectaresFig. 1-7a, p. 11
26Ecological Footprint Fig. 1-7, p. 11 1.5 Earth's Ecological Capacity 1.20.9Humanity's Ecological FootprintNumber of Earths0.60.3196019701980199020002010YearFig. 1-7, p. 11
27Pollution What is pollution? Point Source – single identifiable source Any addition to air, water soil or food that threatens health, survival, or activities, of humans or other organisms.Point Source – single identifiable sourceNonpoint sources – dispersed and hard to identifyWhat are some unwanted effects of pollution?
29Solutions to Pollution Pollution prevention (input control)Pollution cleanup (output control)Disadvantages of output control
30Environmental Problems: Causes and Connections First step: Understanding the causesPoverty and population growthPremature death among the poor
31Natural Capital Use, Depletion and Degradation SOLARCAPITALEARTHGoods and servicesHumanEconomicandCulturalSystemsHeatHuman CapitalDepletion of nonrenewable resourcesDegradation of renewable resourcesNatural CapitalPollution and wasteRecycling and reuseFig. 1-9, p. 13
32Question #6: What are the harmful environmental effects of poverty and affluence?
33Causes of Environmental Problems PopulationgrowthUnsustainableresource usePovertyNot including theenvironmental costsof economic goodsand services in theirmarket pricesTrying to manage andsimplify nature with toolittle knowledge abouthow it worksFig. 1-10, p. 14
34Some Harmful Results of Poverty Lack ofaccess toNumber of people(% of world's population)Adequatesanitation2.4 billion (37%)Enough fuel forheating andcooking2 billion (31%)Electricity1.6 billion (25%)Clean drinking water1.1 billion (17%)Adequatehealth care1.1 billion (17%)Enough foodfor good health1.1 billion (17%)Fig. 1-11, p. 14
36Economics and Ethics Affluenza – addiction to consumption How does globalization and global advertising impact affluenza?Law of Progressive Simplification – transfer of energy from material to nonmaterial things.What are the positive environmental effects of affluenza?
37Question #7: What are the basic causes of today’s environmental problems, and how are these causes connected?
38Environmental Problems and Their Causes Developing CountriesXX=Consumption per person (affluence, A)Technological impact per unit of consumption (T)Environmental impact of population (I)Population (P)XX=XX=Developed CountriesFig. 1-13, p. 16
39Historical Changes in Human Culture Hunter-gatherersAgricultural revolutionIndustrial-medical revolutionInformation-globalization revolution
40Eras of US Environmental History Tribal eraFrontier eraEarly conservation eraEnvironmentalism
41Is Our Present Course Sustainable? Different viewsTechnological optimists – overstate the situation by reminding us that technological advances will save us all.Environmental pessimists – overstate the problem by stating that our environmental situation is hopeless.How Would You Vote? Exercise
42Sustainability Revolution CurrentEmphasisSustainabilityEmphasisPollution cleanupWaste disposal (bury or burn)Protecting speciesEnvironmental degradationIncreased resource usePopulation growthDepleting and degrading natural capital)Pollution prevention (cleaner production)Waste prevention & reductionProtecting where species live(habitat protection)Environmental restorationLess wasteful (more efficient) resource usePopulation stabilization by decreasing birth ratesProtecting natural capital and living off the biological interest it providesFig. 1-14, p. 18