Presentation on theme: "Environmental Problems, Their Causes, and Sustainability Chapter 1."— Presentation transcript:
Environmental Problems, Their Causes, and Sustainability Chapter 1
Question #1: What are the 6 major themes of this book?
Answer Central Theme: Sustainability Central Theme: Sustainability Subthemes: Subthemes: Natural CapitalNatural Capital Natural Capital DegradationNatural Capital Degradation SolutionsSolutions Trade-OffsTrade-Offs Individuals MatterIndividuals Matter …. Sound Science…. Sound Science
Question #2: What is an environmentally stable society?
Living More Sustainability Environment Environment Ecology Ecology Environmental science Environmental science Environmentalism Environmentalism Sustainability Sustainability
Fig. 1-2, p. 7 A Pa t h t o S u s t a i n a b i l i t y Natural Capital Degradation SolutionsTrade-OffsIndividuals Matter S o u n d S c i e n c e Path to Sustainability
Example Imagine you win $1 million in a lottery. If you invest this money and earn 10% interest a year, you will have sustainable income of $100,000. if you spend $200,000 per year, your $1 million will be gone early in the 7 th year. Imagine you win $1 million in a lottery. If you invest this money and earn 10% interest a year, you will have sustainable income of $100,000. if you spend $200,000 per year, your $1 million will be gone early in the 7 th year. Even if you spent $110,000 a year you would be bankrupt in the 18 th year.Even if you spent $110,000 a year you would be bankrupt in the 18 th year.
Natural Capital Earths natural capital Earths natural capital Capital Capital Financial income Financial income Biological income Biological income Degrading capital Degrading capital Fig. 1-3, p. 7
NATURAL CAPITAL NATURAL RESOURCES Air Water Soil Land Life (biodiversity) Nonrenewable minerals (iron, sand) Renewable energy (sun, wind, water flows) Nonrenewable energy (fossil fuels, nuclear power) NATURAL SERVICES NATURAL CAPITAL Air purification Water purification Soil renewal Nutrient recycling Food production Pollination Grassland renewal Forest renewal Waste treatment Climate Control Population control (species interactions) Pest control Fig. 1-3, p. 7 Stepped Art Natural Capital = = + +
Question #3: How fast is the human population increasing?
World Population Exponential growth Exponential growth Poverty Poverty Extinction and biodiversity Extinction and biodiversity Climate changes Climate changes Good news: possible solutions Good news: possible solutions Fig. 1-1, p. 1
Hunting and gathering Agricultural revolutionIndustrial revolution Black Deaththe Plague World Population ? Time Billions of people
Fig. 1-5, p. 9 Developed countries Developing countries World total Human Population Growth Population (billions) Year
Fig. 1-4, p. 9 Percentage of World's Developed countriesDeveloping countries Population growth Wealth and income Resource use Pollution and waste Global Outlook
Question #4: What is the difference between economic growth and economic development?
Economics Economic growth – increase in the capacity of a country to provide people with goods and services. Economic growth – increase in the capacity of a country to provide people with goods and services. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) – the annual market value of all goods and services produced by all firms and organizations in a country. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) – the annual market value of all goods and services produced by all firms and organizations in a country. Per capita GDP – the GDP divided by the total population midyear. Per capita GDP – the GDP divided by the total population midyear.
Economics Economic development – the improvement of human living standards by econoic growth Economic development – the improvement of human living standards by econoic growth Developed and developing countries Developed and developing countries What is the difference?What is the difference?
Fig. 1-6, p. 10 Global life expectancy doubled since 1950 Infant mortality cut in half since 1955 Food production ahead of population growth since 1978 Air and water pollution down in most developed countries since 1970 Number of people living in poverty dropped 6% since 1990 Life expectancy 13 years less in developing countries than in developed Countries Infant mortality rate in developing countries over 9 times higher than in developed countries Harmful environmental effects of agriculture may limit future food production Air and water pollution levels in most developing countries too high Half of world's workers trying to live on less than $2 (U.S.) per day Economic Development Trade-Offs Economic Development Good NewsBad News
Question #5: What are the main types of pollution, and what can you do about pollution?
Resources Perpetual – renewed continuously Perpetual – renewed continuously SOLAR EnergySOLAR Energy Renewable – replenished fairly rapidly Renewable – replenished fairly rapidly Forests, grasslands, wild animals, fresh water, and fresh airForests, grasslands, wild animals, fresh water, and fresh air Nonrenewable – exist in a fixed quantity on Earth Nonrenewable – exist in a fixed quantity on Earth Coal, oil, natural gas, salt, clay, sand, etcCoal, oil, natural gas, salt, clay, sand, etc
Nonrenewable Resources Energy resources Energy resources Metallic mineral resources Metallic mineral resources Nonmetallic mineral resources Nonmetallic mineral resources Economic depletion Economic depletion Recycling and reuse Recycling and reuse
Perpetual and Renewable Resources Sustainable yield – a renewable resource can be reused but never lose its available supply. Sustainable yield – a renewable resource can be reused but never lose its available supply. Environmental degradation – exceeding the natural replacement rate of resources. Environmental degradation – exceeding the natural replacement rate of resources. Tragedy of the Commons – If I dont use it someone else will… mentality Tragedy of the Commons – If I dont use it someone else will… mentality
Fig. 1-7, p. 11 Ecological Footprint
Fig. 1-7a, p. 11 Ecological Footprint Country Per Capita Ecological Footprint (Hectares per person) Country Total Ecological Footprint (Hectares) United States The Netherlands India United States The Netherlands India billion hectares 62 million hectares 880 million hectares
Fig. 1-7, p. 11 Ecological Footprint Number of Earths Year Earth's Ecological Capacity Humanity's Ecological Footprint
Pollution What is pollution? What is pollution? Any addition to air, water soil or food that threatens health, survival, or activities, of humans or other organisms.Any addition to air, water soil or food that threatens health, survival, or activities, of humans or other organisms. Point Source – single identifiable source Point Source – single identifiable source Nonpoint sources – dispersed and hard to identify Nonpoint sources – dispersed and hard to identify What are some unwanted effects of pollution? What are some unwanted effects of pollution?
Point-source Air Pollution Fig. 1-8, p. 13
Solutions to Pollution Pollution prevention (input control) Pollution prevention (input control) Pollution cleanup (output control) Pollution cleanup (output control) Disadvantages of output control Disadvantages of output control
Environmental Problems: Causes and Connections First step: Understanding the causes First step: Understanding the causes Poverty and population growth Poverty and population growth Premature death among the poor Premature death among the poor
Fig. 1-9, p. 13 Natural Capital Use, Depletion and Degradation EARTH SOLAR CAPITAL Human Economic and Cultural Systems Human Capital Natural Capital Goods and services Heat Depletion of nonrenewable resources Degradation of renewable resources Pollution and waste Recycling and reuse
Question #6: What are the harmful environmental effects of poverty and affluence?
Fig. 1-10, p. 14 Causes of Environmental Problems Population growth Unsustainable resource use PovertyNot including the environmental costs of economic goods and services in their market prices Trying to manage and simplify nature with too little knowledge about how it works Causes of Environmental Problems
Fig. 1-11, p. 14 Lack of access to Number of people (% of world's population) Adequate sanitation Electricity Clean drinking water Adequate health care Enough fuel for heating and cooking Enough food for good health 2.4 billion (37%) 2 billion (31%) 1.6 billion (25%) 1.1 billion (17%) Some Harmful Results of Poverty
Malnutrition Fig. 1-12, p. 15
Economics and Ethics Affluenza – addiction to consumption Affluenza – addiction to consumption How does globalization and global advertising impact affluenza? How does globalization and global advertising impact affluenza? Law of Progressive Simplification – transfer of energy from material to nonmaterial things. Law of Progressive Simplification – transfer of energy from material to nonmaterial things. What are the positive environmental effects of affluenza? What are the positive environmental effects of affluenza?
Question #7: What are the basic causes of todays environmental problems, and how are these causes connected?
Fig. 1-13, p. 16 Environmental Problems and Their Causes Developing Countries XX= XX= XX= Developed Countries Population (P) Consumption per person (affluence, A) Technological impact per unit of consumption (T) Environmental impact of population (I)
Historical Changes in Human Culture Hunter-gatherers Hunter-gatherers Agricultural revolution Agricultural revolution Industrial-medical revolution Industrial-medical revolution Information-globalization revolution Information-globalization revolution
Eras of US Environmental History Tribal era Tribal era Frontier era Frontier era Early conservation era Early conservation era Environmentalism Environmentalism
Is Our Present Course Sustainable? Different views Different views Technological optimists – overstate the situation by reminding us that technological advances will save us all.Technological optimists – overstate the situation by reminding us that technological advances will save us all. Environmental pessimists – overstate the problem by stating that our environmental situation is hopeless.Environmental pessimists – overstate the problem by stating that our environmental situation is hopeless. How Would You Vote? Exercise How Would You Vote? Exercise
Current Emphasis Sustainability Emphasis Pollution cleanup Waste disposal (bury or burn) Protecting species Environmental degradation Increased resource use Population growth Depleting and degrading natural capital) Pollution prevention (cleaner production) Waste prevention & reduction Protecting where species live (habitat protection) Environmental restoration Less wasteful (more efficient) resource use Population stabilization by decreasing birth rates Protecting natural capital and living off the biological interest it provides Fig. 1-14, p. 18 Sustainability Revolution