Presentation on theme: "Environmental Problems, Their Causes, and Sustainability"— Presentation transcript:
1Environmental Problems, Their Causes, and Sustainability G. Tyler Miller’sLiving in the Environment14th EditionChapter 1Sections 1 and 2
2Key Concepts Sections 1 and 2 1) What keeps us alive? What is an environmentally sustainable society?2) How fast is human population growing? What are economic growth, economic development and globalization?
3Living More Sustainably Key Terms Environment: is everything that affectsliving organisms.Ecology: biological science that studies the relationships between living organisms and their environment.Environmental Science: an interdisciplinary study that uses information from physical sciences and social sciences to learn how the earth works, how we interacts with the earth and how to deal with environmental problems.
4What is environmentalism? A social movement dedicated to protecting the earth’s environment.Can include:EcologistsBiologistsGeologistsEnvironmentalists
5What Keeps Us Alive? Capital Solar Capital: without the sun there would be no life. (What is the difference between direct and indirect solar energy?NaturalResources:Air, water, soilect.Fig. 1-2, p. 7
6What is an environmentally sustainable society? Meets the basic needs of its people indefinitely without compromising future generations ability to meet those same needs?
7Population GrowthExponential Growth: a quantity increases at a constant rate per unit of timeBetween 1950 and 2004 the world population increased exponentially from 2.5 B to 6.4 B.Each year your college raises tuition 6%, does that mean every year the tuition goes up the same amount?Fig. 1-4, p. 8
8World Population Growth 1950: 2.5 billion2004: 6.4 billion2100: 8-12 billionCurrent avg. growth rate 1.25%/year = 219,000 people per day or 80 million per year. (6.4 billion X )Despite a 22 fold increase in worldwide economic growth, almost one of every two survive on less than $3/day.
9World PopulationCompare hunter/gathering, agriculture, and industrial revolution time period.Fig. 1-1 p. 5
11Economic GrowthAn increase in the capacity of a country to provide its people with goods and services.Gross Domestic Product (GDP): annual market value of all goods and services produced within the country.Per Capita (GNP): GDP divided among the population of the country.Economic Development: improving living standards by economic growth
13Economic DevelopmentDeveloped Countries: US, Canada, Japan, Australia, New Zealand and most of Europe. High Per Capita GDP. (1.2 billion people)Developing Countries: 5.2 billion people living with very little. 97% of population growth.Example: Mexico Daily Minimum Wage is about $4-6 dollars a day.
14Percent of World’s 19 Population 81 0.1 Population growth 1.6 85 Wealth and income851588Resource use1275Pollution and waste25Developed countriesDeveloping countries
15Trade-OffsEconomic DevelopmentGood NewsBad NewsGlobal life expectancy doubled since 1950Life expectancy 11 years less in developing countries than in developed countriesInfant mortality rate in developing countries over 8 times higher than in developed countriesInfant mortality cut in half since 1955Harmful environmental effects of agriculture may limit future food productionFood production ahead of population growth since 1978Air and water pollution down in most developed countries since 1970Air and water pollution levels in most developing countries too highHalf of world’s people trying to live on less than $3 (U.S.) per dayNumber of people living in poverty dropped 6% since 1990
16GlobalizationWe live in a world that is increasingly interconnected through economic, cultural and environmental interdependence.What does that mean for our environment?
17Globalization: A Few Pros/Cons Sharing ideas and technology around the world.Access to materials once unthinkable (example: fresh fruits and vegetables year round)ConsWealth not shared equally.Pollution now worst in poor countries.Loss of local identities.
18Sections 1 and 2 ReviewList 3 pros and cons related to economic development.List several differences between developed and developing countries?Describe exponential growth as it related to population.How may globalization impact the worlds environment?What does environmentally sustainable society mean?List 3 types of solar capital and natural capital.What is the current worldwide population? How is that expected to change?
20Chapter 1 Sections 3,4 and 5 Main Ideas What are earth’s main types of resources? How can they be depleted or degraded?What are the principle types of pollution? What can we do about pollution?What are the basic causes of today’s environmental problems? How are the causes connected?
21Resources Perpetual: renewed continuously on a human scale. Renewable: can be replenished fairly quickly.Non-renewable: exist only in fixed quantities. (once they are gone they are gone.)Fig. 1-6 p. 9
22Renewable Resources Can be depleted or degraded. Sustainable Yield: the highest rate at which a renewable resource can be used without reducing its supply.Example: over-farming the land leading to soil erosion, clear-cutting forests.Environmental Degradation: when we exceed the natural replacement rate of the resource.Example: groundwater depletion, water pollution.
23Tragedy of the Commons 1968 Garrett Hardin Degradation of renewable free-access resources.“If I do not use this resource, someone else will. The little bit I use or pollute is not enough to matter, and such resources are renewable anyway.”Solutions????
24Ecological FootprintMeasure of the biologically productive land and water needed to support each person.1 hectare = 100 acres or 10,000 square meters (about 100 football fields)Fig. 1-7 p. 10
25Non-Renewable Resources Exist only in fixed quantities on earth. Energy Resources: such as coal, oil and natural gas.Metallic Resources:such as iron, copper, aluminumEconomic DepletionFig. 1-8 p. 11Non-Metallic Resources:Such as salt, clay, sandWhen 80% is gone it may be too costly to get the last 20%.
26Reduce, Reuse and Recycle Saving Nonrenewable resources Reduce: Use less resourceReuse: To use the resource more than once to conserve.Recycle: collecting resource, processing it into new products.
27Pollution: What is it?Pollution is the presence of substances at high enough levels in air, water, soil or food to threaten humans or other living organisms.Most pollution are unintended by products of useful activities. Example: driving cars gives of pollutant.
28Effects of PollutionDisrupt or degrade life-supporting systems for humans or other species.Can damage wildlife, human health or property.Can by a nuisance such as noise, smell, sights.
29Sources of PollutionPoint Source: pollutants that come from one single, identifiable source such as a pipe.Nonpoint Source: pollutants that are dispersed and often difficult to identify such as farm or street runoff.
30Dealing With Pollution Prevention (Input Control):Reduced or eliminates pollutants from productionEXAMPLE: driving more fuel efficient automobile
31Dealing with Pollution Pollution Cleanup (output control): Cleaning up or diluting pollution once in the environment.What are the problems with pollution cleanup?
38What is Our Greatest Environmental Problem???? DiseaseOverpopulationWater ShortagesClimate ChangesBiodiversity LossPovertyMalnutrition
39Sections 3,4,5 Review Questions List and describe several “root causes of environmental problems.”Describe the differences between point and non-point source pollution.What is an “ecological footprint?”Identify several perpetual, renewable and nonrenewable resources.Analyze the differences between pollution preventions and pollution cleanup.Describe the “Tragedy of the Commons.”Describe “reduce,” “reuse” and “recycle.”