Presentation on theme: "Living organisms are classified into 3 Domains"— Presentation transcript:
1 Living organisms are classified into 3 Domains 1. Bacteria2. Archaea3. Eukarya4 Kingdoms in this Domain
2 Domain Eukarya has 4 Kingdoms 1. Kingdom Protista2. Kingdom Fungi3. Kingdom Plantae4. Kingdom Animalia
3 Kingdom Protista Believed to have evolved as the first eukaryotes. Organisms in this group just don’t fit perfectly into any other Kingdom in the Domain Eukarya.Most protists are unicellular.Asexual reproduction is common, but sexual reproduction also occurs.Most diverse group of organisms of any kingdom.
4 3 Divisions of Protist Plant like protist Animal like protist Fungus like protist
5 Diversity of Protists 3 Major Divisions Plant-like protistEuglenoidsDiatomsDinoflagellatesRed AlgaeBrown AlgaeGreen Algae
6 Second Division of Protist Animal Like ProtistAmoebasFlagellatesCiliatesSporozoans
7 Third Division of Protist Fungus-Like ProtistSlime MoldsWater Molds and Downy Mildews
8 Kingdom Protista is very diverse. 15 phyla, based on the way they obtain energy.
10 Phylum Chlorophyta: green algae Spirogyra 7000 species of Chlorophyta Diversity of Kingdom ProtistaPhylum Chlorophyta: green algae Spirogyra 7000 species of ChlorophytaThis slide and the following 3 slides are meant to demonstrate the diversity of Phylum Chlorophyta.
11 Phylum Chlorophyta: green algae Diversity of Kingdom ProtistaSpirogyra is a filamentous green algae. They form end-to-end chains of cells. Often found on the surfaces of ponds.Conjugation (similar to bacterial conjugation)
12 Phylum Chlorophyta: green algae Diversity of Kingdom ProtistaMulticellular green algaeChara is a stonewort, the type of green algae believed to be most closely related to plants.
13 Phylum Chlorophyta: green algae Diversity of Kingdom ProtistaPhylum Chlorophyta: green algaeVolvox is a colonial green alga.
14 Green AlgaePediastrum, a flat colony of green algae
15 Phylum Rhodophyta: red algae Diversity of Kingdom ProtistaPhylum Rhodophyta: red algaeCommercial importance of red algae:Agar—laboratory use, gelatin used in Petri dishesCarrageen—thickening agent in commercial productsPorphyra--sushi
16 Phylum Phaeophyta: brown algae Diversity of Kingdom ProtistaUnderwater forests—habitatsKelp—food, habitats for aquatic organismsPectin—used to make gelatin
17 Phylum Bacilariophyta: the Diatoms or Golden Algae Diversity of Kingdom ProtistaPhylum Bacilariophyta: the Diatoms or Golden AlgaeSilica—the shells of these organisms found in sand. Used to make glass, concrete,Diatomaceous earth -dead diatoms settle to seafloor, collected and used in abrasivesPlanktonabundant food source for marine organisms
20 Phylum Dinoflagellata: Spinning Algae-2 flagella for movement Some are photyosyntheticSome are bioluminescentSymbioticParasiticRed tide—population explosion of certain types of dinoflagellates. Kills large amounts of fish. Depletes water of oxygen and releases toxins into the water.
21 Red Tide-Dinoflagellates The toxins produces by the red tide can make humans sick. Harvesting shellfish is banned during this time.
24 Diversity of Kingdom Protista Phylum EuglenophytaFreshwaterThis phylum is a typical example of the difficulties in categorizing protists: 1/3 have chloroplasts, the other 2/3 do not.No sexual reproduction. Longitudinal fission.Propels the body through water.For photosynthesis
27 Phylum Zoomastigina: the flagellates Trypanosomes- transmitted by the bite of a tsetse fly, cause African Sleeping Sickness.Animal-like protists
28 Trypanosomes are Flagellates that cause African sleeping sickness Trypanosomes are Flagellates that cause African sleeping sickness. They are transmitted to their human hosts by the bite of a tsetse fly.Below: Trypanosoma in a sample of human blood X 400.
29 More Flagellates-Zoomastigina Some are helpful and live in the gut of termites and digest wood
30 More Flagellates Phylum Zoomastigina Diversity of Kingdom ProtistaMore Flagellates Phylum ZoomastiginaAnimal-like protistsOther flagellates are known to spread sexually by infecting the vagina and urethra of women, and the prostate, seminal vesicles and urethra of men.Giardia LambliaZooflagellate Example 2Attaches to intestinal tract.
31 Phylum Rhizopoda-Amoebas Move by Pseudopodia Phylum Rhizopoda- amoebas, including Entamoeba hystolyticaPhylum Foraminifera- calcium carbonate shellPhylum Actinopoda-radiolariansTrivia-White Cliffs of Dover, Egyptian pyramids
32 AmoebaThe projections are called pseudopods or “false feet.”
51 Summary of Protist Most diverse group, autotrophic and heterotrophic Eukaryotes, single celled and multicelledStructures: flagella, pseudopodia, cell organellesReproduction asexual and sexualSome are harmless, some cause sleeping sickness and malaria