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1 Living organisms are classified into 3 Domains 1.Bacteria 2.Archaea 3.Eukarya 4 Kingdoms in this Domain.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Living organisms are classified into 3 Domains 1.Bacteria 2.Archaea 3.Eukarya 4 Kingdoms in this Domain."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Living organisms are classified into 3 Domains 1.Bacteria 2.Archaea 3.Eukarya 4 Kingdoms in this Domain

2 2 Domain Eukarya has 4 Kingdoms 1. Kingdom Protista 2. Kingdom Fungi 3. Kingdom Plantae 4. Kingdom Animalia

3 3 Kingdom Protista Believed to have evolved as the first eukaryotes. Believed to have evolved as the first eukaryotes. Organisms in this group just dont fit perfectly into any other Kingdom in the Domain Eukarya. Organisms in this group just dont fit perfectly into any other Kingdom in the Domain Eukarya. Most protists are unicellular. Most protists are unicellular. Asexual reproduction is common, but sexual reproduction also occurs. Asexual reproduction is common, but sexual reproduction also occurs. Most diverse group of organisms of any kingdom. Most diverse group of organisms of any kingdom.

4 4 3 Divisions of Protist Plant like protist Plant like protist Animal like protist Animal like protist Fungus like protist Fungus like protist

5 5 Diversity of Protists 3 Major Divisions Plant-like protist Plant-like protistEuglenoidsDiatomsDinoflagellates Red Algae Brown Algae Green Algae

6 6 Second Division of Protist Animal Like Protist Animal Like Protist Amoebas Amoebas Flagellates Flagellates Ciliates Ciliates Sporozoans Sporozoans

7 7 Third Division of Protist Fungus-Like Protist Fungus-Like Protist Slime Molds Slime Molds Water Molds and Downy Mildews Water Molds and Downy Mildews

8 8 Kingdom Protista is very diverse. 15 phyla, based on the way they obtain energy.

9 9 PLANT-LIKE PROTIST

10 10 Phylum Chlorophyta: green algae Spirogyra 7000 species of Chlorophyta This slide and the following 3 slides are meant to demonstrate the diversity of Phylum Chlorophyta. Diversity of Kingdom Protista

11 11 Phylum Chlorophyta: green algae Spirogyra is a filamentous green algae. They form end-to-end chains of cells. Often found on the surfaces of ponds. Conjugation (similar to bacterial conjugation) Diversity of Kingdom Protista

12 12 Phylum Chlorophyta: green algae Multicellular green algae Chara is a stonewort, the type of green algae believed to be most closely related to plants. Diversity of Kingdom Protista

13 13 Phylum Chlorophyta: green algae Volvox is a colonial green alga. Diversity of Kingdom Protista

14 14 Green Algae Pediastrum, a flat colony of green algae Pediastrum, a flat colony of green algae

15 15 Phylum Rhodophyta: red algae Commercial importance of red algae: Agarlaboratory use, gelatin used in Petri dishes Carrageen thickening agent in commercial products Porphyra--sushi Diversity of Kingdom Protista

16 16 Phylum Phaeophyta: brown algae Underwater forests habitats Kelp food, habitats for aquatic organisms Pectin used to make gelatin Diversity of Kingdom Protista

17 17 Phylum Bacilariophyta: the Diatoms or Golden Algae Silica the shells of these organisms found in sand. Used to make glass, concrete, Diatomaceous earth -dead diatoms settle to seafloor, collected and used in abrasives Plankton abundant food source for marine organisms Diversity of Kingdom Protista

18 18 Diatoms

19 19 More Diatoms

20 20 Phylum Dinoflagellata: Spinning Algae-2 flagella for movement Some are photyosynthetic Some are bioluminescent Symbiotic Parasitic Red tidepopulation explosion of certain types of dinoflagellates. Kills large amounts of fish. Depletes water of oxygen and releases toxins into the water.

21 21 Red Tide-Dinoflagellates The toxins produces by the red tide can make humans sick. Harvesting shellfish is banned during this time.

22 22 More Dinoflagellates

23 23 And more Dinoflagellates

24 24 Phylum Euglenophyta Freshwater This phylum is a typical example of the difficulties in categorizing protists: 1/3 have chloroplasts, the other 2/3 do not. No sexual reproduction. Longitudinal fission. Propels the body through water. For photosynthesis Diversity of Kingdom Protista

25 25 Many Euglena!

26 26 ANIMAL-LIKE PROTIST

27 27 Phylum Zoomastigina: the flagellates Trypanosomes- transmitted by the bite of a tsetse fly, cause African Sleeping Sickness. Animal- like protists

28 28 Trypanosomes are Flagellates that cause African sleeping sickness. They are transmitted to their human hosts by the bite of a tsetse fly. Below: Trypanosoma in a sample of human blood X 400.

29 29 More Flagellates-Zoomastigina Some are helpful and live in the gut of termites and digest wood

30 30 More Flagellates Phylum Zoomastigina Giardia Lamblia Attaches to intestinal tract. Other flagellates are known to spread sexually by infecting the vagina and urethra of women, and the prostate, seminal vesicles and urethra of men. Zooflagellate Example 2 Diversity of Kingdom Protista Animal- like protists

31 31 Phylum Rhizopoda-Amoebas Move by Pseudopodia Phylum Rhizopoda- amoebas, including Entamoeba hystolytica Phylum Foraminifera- calcium carbonate shell Phylum Actinopoda- radiolarians Trivia- White Cliffs of Dover, Egyptian pyramids

32 32 Amoeba The projections are called pseudopods or false feet.

33 33 Amoeba

34 34 Amoeba?

35 35 Phylum Ciliophora: the Ciliates Very diverse group; very complex single-celled organisms which use cilia for movement. Diversity of Kingdom Protista

36 36 Ciliate-Paramecium

37 37 Ciliate-Stentor

38 38 Ciliate-Vorticella

39 39 Phylum Sporozoa Life cycle of Plasmodium vivax, the organism that causes malaria.

40 40 Fungus Like Protist

41 41 Slime molds, Water Molds, and Downy Mildews Phyla Myxomycota, Acrasiomycota and Oomycota Fungus- like protists

42 42 What are Fungus-Like Protists? Organisms which have some fungus like features Organisms which have some fungus like features Heterotrophic Heterotrophic Decompose organic material Decompose organic material

43 43 Slime Mold

44 44 Slime mold plasmodium body & reproductive sporangia stalks

45 45 Dog Vomit Slime Mold

46 46 More Slime Mold

47 47 More Slime Mold

48 48 Unidentified Orange Slime Mold

49 49 Water Mold

50 50 Downy Mildews

51 51 Summary of Protist Most diverse group, autotrophic and heterotrophic Most diverse group, autotrophic and heterotrophic Eukaryotes, single celled and multicelled Eukaryotes, single celled and multicelled Structures: flagella, pseudopodia, cell organelles Structures: flagella, pseudopodia, cell organelles Reproduction asexual and sexual Reproduction asexual and sexual Some are harmless, some cause sleeping sickness and malaria Some are harmless, some cause sleeping sickness and malaria


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