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Protists Unit 6 Chapter 19.

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Presentation on theme: "Protists Unit 6 Chapter 19."— Presentation transcript:

1 Protists Unit 6 Chapter 19

2 Protist characteristics
Eukaryotic: having organelles and nucleus Unicellular or multicellular Heterotrophic, autotrophic, or saprobic Microscopic or large Divided into three major groups: protozoans, algae, and fungus-like protists

3 Protozoans: animal-like protists
Heterotroph: consume organic matter Unicellular

4 Algae: plant-like protists
Autotroph: uses light to make sugars through photosynthesis Lack roots, stems, and leaves

5 Fungus-like protists Decompose dead matter
Motility during some stage of life cycle No chitin in cell walls

6 Protist-borne diseases
Malaria Sleeping sickness

7 Helpful protists Algae through photosynthesis produce oxygen, that makes up the ozone layer. Algae and protozoans can also be part of the plankton that feeds marine animals. Fungus-like protists decompose matter and returns nutrients back to the soil. plankton

8 Freshwater algae asexually reproducing
Protist reproduction Mostly asexual: requiring one source of DNA for offspring Sometimes sexual: requiring two sources of DNA for offspring Freshwater algae asexually reproducing

9 Protozoans Animal-like protists

10 Major groups of protozoans
Amoeba Flagellate Ciliate Sporozoan

11 Movement with pseudopods
Pseudopod: “false foot” Amoeba, shapeless cells

12 Feeding with pseudopods
The extensions of the cellular body surround food particles, which the amoeba then draws into itself for digestion.

13 Other amoeboid protozoans
foraminiferans radiolarians

14 Movement with flagella
This disease causing Giardia protozoan has flagella to move around.

15 Flagellates whip their tails back and forth to propel the cell.

16 Movement with cilia Note the fine cilia that surround the paramecium, making a “halo glow.” Notice the starburst shaped organelle, the contractile vacuole that helps to pump out excess water.

17 Sporozoans: parasitic protozoans
Disease causing Produces spores within host cell Spore: reproductive cell that forms without fertilization and produces a new organism

18 Plasmodium, cause of malaria
The protist is transmitted through a mosquito bite to a human host. The protist reproduces inside the human red blood cells, making them puckered and unable to carry oxygen to the body.

19 Malaria life cycle

20 Algae Plant-like protists

21 Algae pigmentation All have chlorophyll
Some have other pigments: purple, rusty-red, olive-brown, yellow, and golden-brown. Algae are grouped according to their pigmentation. Ex: green algae

22 Major groups of algae Euglenoid Diatom Dinoflagellate Green algae
Red algae Brown algae

23 Euglenoids Unicellular Aquatic Animal-like Plant-like: photosynthetic
No cell wall, just tough cell membrane Flagella

24 Euglenoid

25 Diatoms: golden algae Shells made of silica (major component of glass)
Carotenoid pigment Unicellular Photosynthetic Various shapes Oily inside

26 Diatoms

27 Uses of diatoms, dredged from ocean floors
abrasives in tooth and metal polishes added to paint to give the sparkle that makes pavement lines more visible at night

28 Dinoflagellates Many pigments Two flagella at grooves
Bioluminescent: emit light Symbiotic relationship with jellyfish Produce toxins

29 Red tide Concentration of nerve toxins from certain dinoflagellates cause water bodies to appear red. This water and contaminated shellfish can make humans sick.

30 Red algae Multicellular Commonly called seaweed
Thallus: Seaweed body that attaches to a surface Found deep in the ocean because they can use the light that filters to the bottom for photosynthesis

31 Red algae

32 Brown algae Mostly multicellular Mostly in cool, marine waters
Air bladders in thallus keeps the algae floating

33 Kelp forests Habitat for many marine animals
Dense growth of brown algae Habitat for many marine animals

34 Green algae Most diverse Chlorophyll-rich
Can grow anywhere, even in fur of sloth (below) Colonial algae called Volvox

35 Unicellular green algae

36 Multicellular green algae

37 slime molds, water molds, and downy mildews
Fungus-like protists slime molds, water molds, and downy mildews

38 Slime molds: most like true fungus
Cool, moist environments Able to move around to feed during most of the life cycle Two major types

39 Water molds and downy mildews
Fuzzy white growth on decaying matter

40 How water molds and downy mildews feed
They grow long extensions over the organic material and absorb nutrients through their cell membranes. A particular species infected the Irish potato crop and caused a large famine.

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