Presentation on theme: "Protista is one kingdom in the domain Eukarya."— Presentation transcript:
1 Protista is one kingdom in the domain Eukarya. Protists are difficult to classify.
2 Protists can be animal-like, plantlike, or funguslike. Protists are eukaryotes that are not animals, plants, or fungi.
3 Protist classification will likely change. Some protists are not closely related.Molecular evidence supports reclassification.
4 Animal-like protists are called protozoans. heterotrophs (consume other organisms)single-celledCan move independently
5 Animal-like protists move in various ways. macronucleusfood vacuoleoral groovemicronucleuscontractile vacuolecilia
6 Protozoa with flagella are zooflagellates. flagella help zooflagellates swimmore than 2000 zooflagellates
7 Protists that move with pseudopods are called pseudopodia. some change shape as they moveex. Amoebas and foraminiferaAmoebaforaminiferian
8 Protozoa that move with cilia are called ciliates. Cilia has 2 functions: 1. movement, 2. feeding: food is swept into the oral groove by the cilia for digestion.Macronucleus-controls cells non-reproductive functions such as metabolism and homeostasis.Micronucleus-reproductive divisionmore than 8000 ciliatesmacronucleusfood vacuoleoral groovemicronucleuscontractile vacuoleciliaEx. paramecium
9 Animal-like protists cause disease are called sporozoans Malaria is caused by Plasmodium and spread by mosquitoes.Sleeping sickness is caused by Trypanosoma and spread by flies.A giardia infection (vomiting and diarrhea) is caused by Giardia and spread through water.sporozoiteshuman liverliver cellsdevelopedparasitesred bloodcellsMalaria Infection
10 Plantlike protists are called phytoplankton. photosyntheticsingle-celled, colonial, or multicellularno roots, stems, or leaves
11 Plantlike protists that exhibit some animal characteristics are called euglenoids. mostly photosynthetic, some also heterotrophicsingle-celledone or two flagellafirst evolutionary organism with primitive eyespot, used to detect light for photosynthesispelliclenucleuschloroplasteye spotcontractilevacuoleflagellum
12 Dinoflagellates are mostly marine plantlike protists. have two flagellamay be bioluminescenthave stiff protective platescan cause red tide, algal blooms that can cause harm to aquatic life and humans by releasing toxins andremoving oxygen/nutrients fromwater.Dinoflagellates
13 Diatoms are plantlike protists with glasslike shells. shells made of silicaproduce large amounts of oxygenNon-mobile
14 Plantlike protists can be single-celled or multicellular. Photosynthetic plantlike protists are called algae.Ex. is the VolvoxFlagella on insideLive in coloniescolonydaughter colony
15 Multicellular algae are classified by their pigments. Green algae contain chlorophyll a and b.May be single-celled, colonial or multicelled.Ex. common algae seen on ponds and lakes, seaweed.Red algae contain chlorophyll a and phycoerythrin.Ex. help build coral reefsBrown algae contain chlorophyll c and fucoxanthin.Ex. kelp, can grow up to 60 meters in height.
16 Human Uses for Algae Mmmm...algae Major food source for the ocean. Produces much of the earth’s oxygen.Chemicals from algae are used to make plastics, waxes, paints, deodorants, agar etc.Also found in ice cream, pancake syrup, eggnog, etc.Mmmm...algae
17 Many plantlike protists can reproduce both sexually and asexually. All algae can reproduce asexually.Multicellular algae can fragment.Chlamydomonas divides into zoospores.
18 Some algae produce sexually. Some species alternate generations(have both asexual and sexual reproductive cycles).Sexual reproduction can be triggered by environmental stress.
19 Funguslike protists decompose dead organisms. Heterotrophs, called decomposerscan move, whereas fungi cannot
20 Funguslike protists Decompose organic material Slime molds and water molds have both fungus-like and animal-like traits.decomposers, like fungi, (beneficial help material rot).can move, like animals
21 Slime molds can be plasmodial or cellular. Plasmodial slime molds (acellular) are giant cells with many nuclei.Cellular slime molds contain independent cells.
22 Water molds are freshwater, funguslike protists. one type of water mold caused Great Potato Famine of Ireland in the 1800’s (potato blight, blights of grapes and tomatoes)made of branching strands of cellscan be parasites of plants or fish
23 Overview Chart of Protista PhylumLife CycleMotilityHabitatChlorophyta(green algae)ZygoticGametic and alt of generationSome motile & NonmotileFresh water, Few Marine & TerrestrialBacillariophyta( diatoms)GameticflagellumMarine & freshphaeophyta (brown algae)FlagellumRhodophyta(Red Algae)Alternation of GenerationNonmotileMostly Marine & few fresh water