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Living organisms are classified into 3 Domains

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Presentation on theme: "Living organisms are classified into 3 Domains"— Presentation transcript:

1 Living organisms are classified into 3 Domains
1. Bacteria 2. Archaea 3. Eukarya 4 Kingdoms in this Domain

2 Domain Eukarya has 4 Kingdoms
1. Kingdom Protista 2. Kingdom Fungi 3. Kingdom Plantae 4. Kingdom Animalia

3 Kingdom Protista Believed to have evolved as the first eukaryotes.
Organisms in this group just don’t fit perfectly into any other Kingdom in the Domain Eukarya.

4 Most protists are unicellular, but some multicellular
Asexual reproduction is common, but sexual reproduction also occurs. Most diverse group of organisms of any kingdom.

5 3 Divisions of Protist Plant-like protist Animal-like protist
Fungus-like protist

6 Diversity of Protista 3 Major Divisions
1st Plant-like Protist Phytoplankton Algae (Sea Weed) Euglenoids Red Algae Diatoms Brown Algae Dinoflagellates Green Algae Unicellular Multicellular

7 2nd Division of Protista
Animal Like Protist or Protozoa Amoebas Flagellates Ciliates Sporozoans

8 3rd Division of Protista
Fungus-Like Protist Slime Molds Water Molds Downy Mildews

9 15 phyla, based on the way they obtain energy.

10 PLANT-LIKE PROTIST It is thought that these Evolve into Plants with specialized cells and tissues

11 Phylum Chlorophyta Green Algae Spirogyra 7000 species of Chlorophyta

12 Phylum Chlorophyta Green Algae
Spirogyra is a filamentous green algae. They form end-to-end chains of cells. Often found on the surfaces of ponds. Conjugation  (similar to bacterial conjugation)

13 Phylum Chlorophyta: Green Algae
Multicellular green algae Chara is a stonewort, the type of green algae believed to be most closely related to plants.

14 Phylum Chlorophyta Green Algae
Volvox is a colonial green alga which has many individuals living together

15 Green Algae Pediastrum, a flat colony of green algae

16 Phylum Rhodophyta Red Algae
Commercial importance of red algae: Agar—laboratory use, gelatin used in Petri dishes Carrageen—thickening agent in commercial products Porphyra--sushi

17 Phylum Phaeophyta Brown Algae
Underwater forests—habitats Kelp—food, habitats for aquatic organisms Pectin—used to make gelatin

18 Brown Algae-Kelp

19 Phylum Bacilariophyta: Diatoms or Golden Algae
Silica—the shells of these organisms are used to make glass, concrete, Diatomaceous earth -dead diatoms settle to seafloor, collected and used in abrasives Plankton abundant food source for marine organisms

20 Diatoms

21 More Diatoms

22 Phylum Dinoflagellata: Spinning Algae-2 flagella for movement
Some are bio-luminescent Some Symbiotic Some Parasitic Red tide—population explosion of certain types of dinoflagellates. Kills large amounts of fish. Depletes water of oxygen and releases toxins into the water.

23 Red Tide-Dinoflagellates
The toxins produces by the Red Tide can make humans sick. Harvesting shellfish is banned during this time.

24 More Dinoflagellates

25 And more Dinoflagellates

26 Phylum Euglenophyta Freshwater
This phylum is a typical example of the difficulties in categorizing protists: 1/3 have chloroplasts, the other 2/3 do not. No sexual reproduction. Longitudinal fission. Propels the body through water.

27 Many Euglena!

28 ANIMAL-LIKE PROTIST It is thought that these evolve into of Animals with multicellularity and specialized cells and tissue

29 Phylum Zoomastigina: Move by Flagella
Trypanosoma transmitted by the bite of a tsetse fly, cause African Sleeping Sickness. Animal-like protists Parasite

30 Trypanosoma are Flagellates which cause African Sleeping Sickness Transmitted to their human hosts by a tsetse fly Below: Trypanosoma in a sample of human blood X 400.

31 Search Results More Flagellates Zoomastigina Some are helpful and live in the gut of termites and digest wood

32 More Flagellates Phylum Zoomastigina
Animal-like protists Other flagellates are known to spread sexually by infecting the vagina and urethra of women, and the prostate, seminal vesicles and urethra of men. Example: Trichomoniasis Giardia Lamblia Attaches to intestinal tract and causes diarrhea Can become infected by drinking contaminated water from stream

33 Phylum Rhizopoda-Amoebas Move by Pseudopodia
Phylum Rhizopoda- amoebas, including Entamoeba hystolytica Phylum Foraminifera- calcium carbonate shell Phylum Actinopoda-radiolarians Trivia White Cliffs of Dover, Egyptian pyramids

34 Amoeba The projections are called pseudopods or “false feet.”

35 Amoeba?

36 Phylum Ciliophora or Ciliates Move by Cilia
Very diverse group; very complex single-celled organisms which use cilia for movement.

37 Ciliate-Paramecium

38 Ciliate-Stentor

39 Ciliate-Vorticella

40 Phylum Sporozoa-Parasite
Life cycle of Plasmodium vivax, which Causes malaria Carried by the Anopheles mosquito

41 Fungus-Like Protist Thought to evolve into Fungus

42 What are Fungus-Like Protists?
Organisms which have some fungus-like features Heterotrophic Decompose organic material

43 Types of Fungus Like Protist: Slime molds, Water Molds, and Downy Mildews

44 Slime Mold

45 Slime Mold Body with reproductive Sporangia Stalks

46 “Dog Vomit” Slime Mold

47 More Slime Mold

48 More Slime Mold

49 Orange Slime Mold

50 Fungus like Protist

51 Downy Mildews

52 Summary of Protista Kingdom
Most diverse group, autotrophic and heterotrophic Eukaryotes, single celled and multicelled Some move by: flagella, pseudopodia, cillia Some are parasites Reproduction both asexual and sexual Some are harmless, some cause sleeping sickness , malaria and STDs

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